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Review

Effectiveness of Horticultural Therapy in People with Schizophrenia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

by 1,†, 2,†, 1, 1,* and 2,*
1
College of Horticulture, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100069, China
2
School of Nursing, Peking University, Beijing 100069, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Shan Lu and Yajie Zhao are co-first authors of the article.
Academic Editor: Kirsten Kaya Roessler
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(3), 964; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18030964
Received: 15 December 2020 / Revised: 17 January 2021 / Accepted: 19 January 2021 / Published: 22 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Therapeutic Environments—Existential Challenges and Healing Places)
Horticultural therapy is increasingly being used in the non-pharmacological treatment of patients with schizophrenia, with previous studies demonstrating its therapeutic effects. The healing outcomes are positively correlated with the settings of the intervention. This review aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of horticultural therapy on the symptoms, rehabilitation outcomes, quality of life, and social functioning in people with schizophrenia, and the different effectiveness in hospital and non-hospital environments. This review followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Protocols (PRISMA) guidelines. We researched studies through PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, Science Direct, and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-experimental studies about horticultural therapy for people with schizophrenia, from January 2000 to December 2020, with a total of 23 studies involving 2024 people with schizophrenia included in this systematic review. This study provided evidence supporting the positive effect of horticultural therapy. This review demonstrated that non-hospital environments have a better therapeutic effect on all indicators than hospital environments. The results also demonstrated the effectiveness of horticultural therapy on symptoms, rehabilitation outcomes, quality of life, and social functioning in patients in hospital and non-hospital environments, providing further evidence-based support for landscape design. View Full-Text
Keywords: horticultural therapy; schizophrenia; meta-analysis; systematic review horticultural therapy; schizophrenia; meta-analysis; systematic review
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lu, S.; Zhao, Y.; Liu, J.; Xu, F.; Wang, Z. Effectiveness of Horticultural Therapy in People with Schizophrenia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 964. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18030964

AMA Style

Lu S, Zhao Y, Liu J, Xu F, Wang Z. Effectiveness of Horticultural Therapy in People with Schizophrenia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(3):964. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18030964

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lu, Shan, Yajie Zhao, Jianjiao Liu, Feng Xu, and Zhiwen Wang. 2021. "Effectiveness of Horticultural Therapy in People with Schizophrenia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 3: 964. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18030964

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