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Review

Interactions with Arsenic: Mechanisms of Toxicity and Cellular Resistance in Eukaryotic Microorganisms

1
Astrobiology Center (INTA-CSIC), Carretera de Ajalvir Km 4, 28850 Madrid, Spain
2
Department of Genetics, Physiology and Microbiology, Faculty of Biology, C/José Antonio Novais, 12, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM), 28040 Madrid, Spain
3
Animal Health Research Centre (CISA), National Institute for Agricultural and Food Research and Technology (INIA-CSIC), 28130 Madrid, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(22), 12226; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182212226
Received: 12 October 2021 / Revised: 16 November 2021 / Accepted: 17 November 2021 / Published: 21 November 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Advances in Heavy Metal Pollution)
Arsenic (As) is quite an abundant metalloid, with ancient origin and ubiquitous distribution, which represents a severe environmental risk and a global problem for public health. Microbial exposure to As compounds in the environment has happened since the beginning of time. Selective pressure has induced the evolution of various genetic systems conferring useful capacities in many microorganisms to detoxify and even use arsenic, as an energy source. This review summarizes the microbial impact of the As biogeochemical cycle. Moreover, the poorly known adverse effects of this element on eukaryotic microbes, as well as the As uptake and detoxification mechanisms developed by yeast and protists, are discussed. Finally, an outlook of As microbial remediation makes evident the knowledge gaps and the necessity of new approaches to mitigate this environmental challenge. View Full-Text
Keywords: arsenic; toxicity; yeasts; microalgae; resistance mechanisms arsenic; toxicity; yeasts; microalgae; resistance mechanisms
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MDPI and ACS Style

De Francisco, P.; Martín-González, A.; Rodriguez-Martín, D.; Díaz, S. Interactions with Arsenic: Mechanisms of Toxicity and Cellular Resistance in Eukaryotic Microorganisms. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 12226. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182212226

AMA Style

De Francisco P, Martín-González A, Rodriguez-Martín D, Díaz S. Interactions with Arsenic: Mechanisms of Toxicity and Cellular Resistance in Eukaryotic Microorganisms. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(22):12226. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182212226

Chicago/Turabian Style

De Francisco, Patricia, Ana Martín-González, Daniel Rodriguez-Martín, and Silvia Díaz. 2021. "Interactions with Arsenic: Mechanisms of Toxicity and Cellular Resistance in Eukaryotic Microorganisms" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 22: 12226. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182212226

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