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Article

Spatial and Temporal Trends of SARS-CoV-2 RNA from Wastewater Treatment Plants over 6 Weeks in Cape Town, South Africa

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Environment & Health Research Unit, South African Medical Research Council (SAMRC), Tygerberg 7505, South Africa
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Environmental Health Department, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg 2092, South Africa
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Biomedical Research and Innovation Platform (BRIP), South African Medical Research Council (SAMRC), Tygerberg 7505, South Africa
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Department of Microbiology, Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch 7600, South Africa
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Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Zululand, KwaDlangezwa 3886, South Africa
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Biostatistics Unit, South African Medical Research Council (SAMRC), Tygerberg 7505, South Africa
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Scientific Services, Water and Sanitation Department, City of Cape Town Metropolitan Municipality, Cape Town 8000, South Africa
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Community Services and Health, City Health, City of Cape Town, Hertzog Boulevard, Cape Town 8001, South Africa
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COVID-19 Prevention Network (COVPN), Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA 98109, USA
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Office of the President, South African Medical Research Council, Tygerberg 7050, South Africa
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Chief Research Operations Office, South African Medical Research Council, Tygerberg 7050, South Africa
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Centre for Cardio-Metabolic Research in Africa, Division of Medical Physiology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch 7600, South Africa
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Discipline of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Health Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Westville Campus, Durban 4001, South Africa
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Zeynep Cetecioglu Gurol, Gianluigi Buttiglieri and Vanessa Moresco
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(22), 12085; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182212085
Received: 5 August 2021 / Revised: 13 October 2021 / Accepted: 20 October 2021 / Published: 17 November 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue COVID-19: Wastewater-Based Epidemiology)
Recent scientific trends have revealed that the collection and analysis of data on the occurrence and fate of SARS-CoV-2 in wastewater may serve as an early warning system for COVID-19. In South Africa, the first COVID-19 epicenter emerged in the Western Cape Province. The City of Cape Town, located in the Western Cape Province, has approximately 4 million inhabitants. This study reports on the monitoring of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in the wastewater of the City of Cape Town’s wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) during the peak of the epidemic. During this period, the highest overall median viral RNA signal was observed in week 1 (9200 RNA copies/mL) and declined to 127 copies/mL in week 6. The overall decrease in the amount of detected viral SARS-CoV-2 RNA over the 6-week study period was associated with a declining number of newly identified COVID-19 cases in the city. The SARS-CoV-2 early warning system has now been established to detect future waves of COVID-19. View Full-Text
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; wastewater; environmental epidemiology; South Africa SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; wastewater; environmental epidemiology; South Africa
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MDPI and ACS Style

Street, R.; Mathee, A.; Mangwana, N.; Dias, S.; Sharma, J.R.; Ramharack, P.; Louw, J.; Reddy, T.; Brocker, L.; Surujlal-Naicker, S.; Berkowitz, N.; Malema, M.S.; Nkambule, S.; Webster, C.; Mahlangeni, N.; Gelderblom, H.; Mdhluli, M.; Gray, G.; Muller, C.; Johnson, R. Spatial and Temporal Trends of SARS-CoV-2 RNA from Wastewater Treatment Plants over 6 Weeks in Cape Town, South Africa. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 12085. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182212085

AMA Style

Street R, Mathee A, Mangwana N, Dias S, Sharma JR, Ramharack P, Louw J, Reddy T, Brocker L, Surujlal-Naicker S, Berkowitz N, Malema MS, Nkambule S, Webster C, Mahlangeni N, Gelderblom H, Mdhluli M, Gray G, Muller C, Johnson R. Spatial and Temporal Trends of SARS-CoV-2 RNA from Wastewater Treatment Plants over 6 Weeks in Cape Town, South Africa. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(22):12085. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182212085

Chicago/Turabian Style

Street, Renée, Angela Mathee, Noluxabiso Mangwana, Stephanie Dias, Jyoti Rajan Sharma, Pritika Ramharack, Johan Louw, Tarylee Reddy, Ludwig Brocker, Swastika Surujlal-Naicker, Natacha Berkowitz, Mokaba Shirley Malema, Sizwe Nkambule, Candice Webster, Nomfundo Mahlangeni, Huub Gelderblom, Mongezi Mdhluli, Glenda Gray, Christo Muller, and Rabia Johnson. 2021. "Spatial and Temporal Trends of SARS-CoV-2 RNA from Wastewater Treatment Plants over 6 Weeks in Cape Town, South Africa" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 22: 12085. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182212085

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