Is Social Media Spreading Misinformation on Exercise and Health in Brazil?
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Ethics Approval and Consent to Participate
2.2. Account Selection Criteria
2.3. Technical Evaluation of Influencers
2.4. Post’s Inclusion and Classification
2.5. Quality Criteria Assessment
2.6. Statistical Analysis
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|(1) Is the author academically/professionally qualified to provide information on the mentioned topic?||Account’s administrator must have a compatible academic or professional qualification to be qualified to make recommendations on the mentioned topic (e.g., nutritionists cannot prescribe exercise).||0 points for without professional qualification|
1 point for Bachelor of Science
2 points for Specialist
3 points for Master of Science
4 points for Doctor of Science/PhD
|(2) Does the author cite any source of information?||Acknowledgment of the source of the information used in the post, such as a scientific study or a book, is preferable for transparency and reliability.||1 point if yes or 0 if not.|
|(3) Are the post’s statements in agreement with the cited references? 1||(1) If a reference is cited, the post must be aligned with its source. Presenting an irrelevant reference should be a problem.|
(2) If a recommendation is posted, it cannot directly contradict the source (e.g., exercise parameters must be recommended in accordance with the cited reference).
(3) If a recommendation is not applicable, the conclusions presented in the post must be based on the cited reference.
|1 point only if all three concerns were clearly fulfilled.|
|(4) Are the post’s guidance supported by any scientific source, even if no reference was cited at all?||The recommendation must be methodologically reasonable/feasible.|
(1) Even without a scientific source, the recommendation/statement/suggestion cannot be deleterious to health (e.g., advocate the use of steroids).
(2) The information needs to be in line with scientifically proven and available evidence on the topic.
|1 point only if all two concerns were clearly fulfilled.|
|Without professional qualification||8||-||-||-||-|
|QC1 (Account)||QC2 (Post)||QC3 (Post)||QC4 (Post)||Quality-Ratio Score|
(Account + Post)
|Account (n)||Score (median)||Posts (n)||Score (reached)||Posts (n)||Score (reached)||Posts (n)||Score (reached)||% (Mean ± SD)|
|33||1||495||95||495||13||495||217||38.79 ± 25.43|
|Number of Likes||Academic/Professional Qualification||Quality-Ratio Score|
|Number of followers||0.606 *||−0.450 *||−0.178|
|Number of likes||-||−0.108||−0.187|
|Academic/Professional qualification of the influencers||-||-||0.313|
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Marocolo, M.; Meireles, A.; de Souza, H.L.R.; Mota, G.R.; Oranchuk, D.J.; Arriel, R.A.; Leite, L.H.R. Is Social Media Spreading Misinformation on Exercise and Health in Brazil? Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 11914. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182211914
Marocolo M, Meireles A, de Souza HLR, Mota GR, Oranchuk DJ, Arriel RA, Leite LHR. Is Social Media Spreading Misinformation on Exercise and Health in Brazil? International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(22):11914. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182211914Chicago/Turabian Style
Marocolo, Moacir, Anderson Meireles, Hiago Leandro Rodrigues de Souza, Gustavo Ribeiro Mota, Dustin Jay Oranchuk, Rhaí André Arriel, and Laura Hora Rios Leite. 2021. "Is Social Media Spreading Misinformation on Exercise and Health in Brazil?" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 22: 11914. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182211914