Next Article in Journal
Homelessness and Public Health: A Focus on Strategies and Solutions
Next Article in Special Issue
Italian Validation of the Scale of Psychological Abuse in Intimate Partner Violence (EAPA-P)
Previous Article in Journal
Increased Prevalence of Atopic Dermatitis in Children Aged 0–3 Years Highly Exposed to Parabens
Previous Article in Special Issue
Health-Related Quality of Life of Elderly Women with Fall Experiences
Article

Factors Related to Women’s Psychological Distress during the COVID-19 Pandemic: Evidence from a Two-Wave Longitudinal Study

1
Department of Psychology, Educational Science and Human Movement, University of Palermo, 90128 Palermo, Italy
2
Department of Developmental and Social Psychology, University of Padova, 35132 Padova, Italy
3
Digital Health Lab, Fondazione Bruno Kessler, 38122 Trento, Italy
4
Department of Philosophy, Social & Human Sciences and Education, University of Perugia, 06123 Perugia, Italy
5
Department of History, Society and Human Studies, University of Salento, 73100 Lecce, Italy
6
Faculty of Psychotherapy Science, Sigmund Freud University Vienna, 1020 Vienna, Austria
7
Department of Humanities, University of Napoli Federico II, 80133 Napoli, Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Carmela Mento and Maria Catena Silvestri
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(21), 11656; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182111656
Received: 14 October 2021 / Revised: 3 November 2021 / Accepted: 4 November 2021 / Published: 6 November 2021
Background. A growing body of research has highlighted the negative effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on women’s mental health. Previous studies showed that women have higher levels of depression, anxiety and PTSD, and worse psychological adjustment than men, which also persisted after the earlier phase of the pandemic. This study aimed to evaluate changes in women’s psychological distress during the pandemic and to evaluate the factors that have a more significant impact in predicting women’s psychological distress. Methods. This two-wave longitudinal study (T1 = Italian first lockdown, and T2 = second phase, when the restrictive measures were eased) involved 893 women (Mage = 36.45, SD = 14.48). Participants provided demographic and health data as well as measures of psychological distress, emotion regulation processes, and ability to tolerate uncertainty. Results. No significant changes were found in women’s psychological distress between T1 and T2, i.e., during and after the first lockdown. Lower social stability status and higher maladaptive emotional coping predicted high psychological distress. Conclusions. Results showed that modifiable psychological variables play a central role in predicting distress and indicated that emotion regulation interventions might be helpful in increasing psychological resilience and mitigating the adverse impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic within the female population. View Full-Text
Keywords: women; COVID-19; distress; principal component analysis; emotion regulation; social stability status; intolerance of uncertainly women; COVID-19; distress; principal component analysis; emotion regulation; social stability status; intolerance of uncertainly
MDPI and ACS Style

Di Blasi, M.; Albano, G.; Bassi, G.; Mancinelli, E.; Giordano, C.; Mazzeschi, C.; Pazzagli, C.; Salcuni, S.; Lo Coco, G.; Gelo, O.C.G.; Lagetto, G.; Freda, M.F.; Esposito, G.; Caci, B.; Merenda, A.; Salerno, L. Factors Related to Women’s Psychological Distress during the COVID-19 Pandemic: Evidence from a Two-Wave Longitudinal Study. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 11656. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182111656

AMA Style

Di Blasi M, Albano G, Bassi G, Mancinelli E, Giordano C, Mazzeschi C, Pazzagli C, Salcuni S, Lo Coco G, Gelo OCG, Lagetto G, Freda MF, Esposito G, Caci B, Merenda A, Salerno L. Factors Related to Women’s Psychological Distress during the COVID-19 Pandemic: Evidence from a Two-Wave Longitudinal Study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(21):11656. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182111656

Chicago/Turabian Style

Di Blasi, Maria, Gaia Albano, Giulia Bassi, Elisa Mancinelli, Cecilia Giordano, Claudia Mazzeschi, Chiara Pazzagli, Silvia Salcuni, Gianluca Lo Coco, Omar C.G. Gelo, Gloria Lagetto, Maria F. Freda, Giovanna Esposito, Barbara Caci, Aluette Merenda, and Laura Salerno. 2021. "Factors Related to Women’s Psychological Distress during the COVID-19 Pandemic: Evidence from a Two-Wave Longitudinal Study" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 21: 11656. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182111656

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop