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Article

Development and Pilot Use of a Questionnaire to Assess the Knowledge of Midwives and Pediatric Nurses on Maternal Use of Analgesics during Lactation

1
Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Academic Centre for Nursing and Midwifery, 3000 Leuven, Belgium
2
Clinical Pharmacology and Pharmacotherapy, Department of Pharmaceutical and Pharmacological Sciences, KU Leuven, 3000 Leuven, Belgium
3
Woman and Child, Department of Development and Regeneration, KU Leuven, 3000 Leuven, Belgium
4
Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Erasmus MC Rotterdam, Wytemaweg Hospital Pharmacy, 3075 CE Rotterdam, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Both authors contributed equally to the manuscript, and are first authors.
Academic Editor: Eusebio Chiefari
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(21), 11555; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182111555
Received: 5 October 2021 / Revised: 1 November 2021 / Accepted: 2 November 2021 / Published: 3 November 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmacotherapy during Pregnancy, Childbirth and Lactation)
There is a need to assess the knowledge of healthcare providers on the use of maternal analgesics during lactation; however, valid instruments are not yet available. This study aimed to develop and test a valid questionnaire on the knowledge of analgesics (acetaminophen, ibuprofen, aspirin, tramadol, codeine, oxycodone) during lactation, using a structured, stepwise approach. As a first step, literature was screened to generate a preliminary version consisting of a pool of item subgroups. This preliminary version was subsequently reviewed during two focus groups (midwives: n = 4; pediatric nurses: n = 6), followed by a two-round online Delphi with experts (n = 7) to confirm item and scale content validity. This resulted in an instrument consisting of 33 questions and 5 specific clinical case descriptions for both disciplines. Based on the assumption of an a priori difference in knowledge between midwives and pediatric nurses related to their curricula (known-groups validity), high construct validity was demonstrated in a pilot survey (midwives: n = 86; pediatric nurses: n = 73). We therefore conclude that a valid instrument to assess knowledge on lactation-related exposure to analgesics was generated, which could be further validated and used for research and educational purposes. As these pilot findings suggest suboptimal knowledge for both professions on this topic, adaptations to their curricula and postgraduate training might be warranted. View Full-Text
Keywords: questionnaire development; lactation; breastfeeding; analgesics; education; knowledge assessment; midwife; nurse questionnaire development; lactation; breastfeeding; analgesics; education; knowledge assessment; midwife; nurse
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MDPI and ACS Style

Janssens, I.; Van Hauwe, M.; Ceulemans, M.; Allegaert, K. Development and Pilot Use of a Questionnaire to Assess the Knowledge of Midwives and Pediatric Nurses on Maternal Use of Analgesics during Lactation. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 11555. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182111555

AMA Style

Janssens I, Van Hauwe M, Ceulemans M, Allegaert K. Development and Pilot Use of a Questionnaire to Assess the Knowledge of Midwives and Pediatric Nurses on Maternal Use of Analgesics during Lactation. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(21):11555. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182111555

Chicago/Turabian Style

Janssens, Ine, Margot Van Hauwe, Michael Ceulemans, and Karel Allegaert. 2021. "Development and Pilot Use of a Questionnaire to Assess the Knowledge of Midwives and Pediatric Nurses on Maternal Use of Analgesics during Lactation" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 21: 11555. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182111555

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