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Article

T1DMicro: A Clinical Risk Calculator for Type 1 Diabetes Related Microvascular Complications

1
Center for Biotechnology and Genomic Medicine, Augusta University, 1120, 15th Str., Augusta, GA 30912, USA
2
Department of Neurology, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta University, 1120, 15th Str., Augusta, GA 30912, USA
3
Atlanta Diabetes Associates, Atlanta, GA 30318, USA
4
Southeastern Endocrine and Diabetes, Atlanta, GA 30076, USA
5
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Augusta University, 1120, 15th Str., Augusta, GA 30912, USA
6
Department of Undergraduate Health Professionals, Augusta University, 1120, 15th Str., Augusta, GA 30912, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to the study.
Academic Editor: Candis M. Morello
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(21), 11094; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182111094
Received: 1 September 2021 / Revised: 4 October 2021 / Accepted: 15 October 2021 / Published: 21 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exploring Clinical Outcomes in Diabetes Patients)
Development of complications in type 1 diabetes patients can be reduced by modifying risk factors. We used a cross-sectional cohort of 1646 patients diagnosed with type 1 diabetes (T1D) to develop a clinical risk score for diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN), autonomic neuropathy (AN), retinopathy (DR), and nephropathy (DN). Of these patients, 199 (12.1%) had DPN, 63 (3.8%) had AN, 244 (14.9%) had DR, and 88 (5.4%) had DN. We selected five variables to include in each of the four microvascular complications risk models: age, age of T1D diagnosis, duration of T1D, and average systolic blood pressure and HbA1C over the last three clinic visits. These variables were selected for their strong evidence of association with diabetic complications in the literature and because they are modifiable risk factors. We found the optimism-corrected R2 and Harrell’s C statistic were 0.39 and 0.87 for DPN, 0.24 and 0.86 for AN, 0.49 and 0.91 for DR, and 0.22 and 0.83 for DN, respectively. This tool was built to help inform patients of their current risk of microvascular complications and to motivate patients to control their HbA1c and systolic blood pressure in order to reduce their risk of these complications. View Full-Text
Keywords: type 1 diabetes; complications; peripheral and autonomic neuropathy; retinopathy; nephropathy; risk prediction; clinical calculator type 1 diabetes; complications; peripheral and autonomic neuropathy; retinopathy; nephropathy; risk prediction; clinical calculator
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MDPI and ACS Style

Tran, P.M.H.; Kim, E.; Tran, L.K.H.; Khaled, B.S.; Hopkins, D.; Gardiner, M.; Bryant, J.; Bernard, R.; Morgan, J.; Bode, B.; Reed, J.C.; She, J.-X.; Purohit, S. T1DMicro: A Clinical Risk Calculator for Type 1 Diabetes Related Microvascular Complications. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 11094. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182111094

AMA Style

Tran PMH, Kim E, Tran LKH, Khaled BS, Hopkins D, Gardiner M, Bryant J, Bernard R, Morgan J, Bode B, Reed JC, She J-X, Purohit S. T1DMicro: A Clinical Risk Calculator for Type 1 Diabetes Related Microvascular Complications. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(21):11094. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182111094

Chicago/Turabian Style

Tran, Paul M.H., Eileen Kim, Lynn K.H. Tran, Bin S. Khaled, Diane Hopkins, Melissa Gardiner, Jennifer Bryant, Risa Bernard, John Morgan, Bruce Bode, John C. Reed, Jin-Xiong She, and Sharad Purohit. 2021. "T1DMicro: A Clinical Risk Calculator for Type 1 Diabetes Related Microvascular Complications" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 21: 11094. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182111094

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