Next Article in Journal
A Delphi Study Protocol to Identify Recommendations on Physical Activity and Exercise in Patients with Diabetes and Risk of Foot Ulcerations
Previous Article in Journal
Social Distancing Policies in the Coronavirus Battle: A Comparison of Denmark and Sweden
Previous Article in Special Issue
Is a Handful an Effective Way to Guide Nut Recommendations?
Article

Snacking on Almonds Lowers Glycaemia and Energy Intake Compared to a Popular High-Carbohydrate Snack Food: An Acute Randomised Crossover Study

1
Department of Human Nutrition, University of Otago, P.O. Box 56, Dunedin 9054, New Zealand
2
Biostatistics Centre, Division of Health Sciences, University of Otago, P.O. Box 56, Dunedin 9054, New Zealand
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(20), 10989; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182010989
Received: 28 September 2021 / Revised: 15 October 2021 / Accepted: 16 October 2021 / Published: 19 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nuts and Human Health)
Consuming nuts may have advantages over other snack foods for health and body-weight regulation. Suggested mechanisms include increased satiety and lower glycaemia. We used an acute randomised crossover trial to assess glycaemic and appetite responses to consuming two isocaloric snacks (providing 10% of participants’ total energy requirements or 1030 kJ (equivalent to 42.5 g almonds), whichever provided greater energy): raw almonds and sweet biscuits among 100 participants with available data (25 males and 75 females) following 106 being randomised. Two hours after consuming a standardised breakfast, participants consumed the snack food. Finger-prick blood samples measuring blood glucose and subjective appetite ratings using visual analogue scales were taken at baseline and at 15 or 30 min intervals after consumption. Two hours after snack consumption, an ad libitum lunch was offered to participants and consumption was recorded. Participants also recorded food intake for the remainder of the day. The mean area under the blood glucose response curve was statistically and practically significantly lower for almonds than biscuits (mean (95% CI) difference: 53 mmol/L.min (45, 61), p < 0.001). Only the composite appetite score at 90 min was higher in the almond treatment compared to the biscuit treatment (45.7 mm vs. 42.4 mm, p = 0.035 without adjustment for multiple comparisons). There was no evidence of differences between the snacks for all other appetite ratings or for energy intake at the ad libitum lunch. However, mean energy intakes following snack consumption were significantly lower, both statistically and in practical terms, for the almond treatment compared to the biscuit (mean (95% CI) diff: 638 kJ (44, 1233), p = 0.035). Replacing popular snacks with almonds may have advantages in terms of glycaemia and energy balance. View Full-Text
Keywords: postprandial glycaemic response; almonds; nuts; satiety; appetite; energy intake; snack foods postprandial glycaemic response; almonds; nuts; satiety; appetite; energy intake; snack foods
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Brown, R.; Ware, L.; Gray, A.R.; Chisholm, A.; Tey, S.L. Snacking on Almonds Lowers Glycaemia and Energy Intake Compared to a Popular High-Carbohydrate Snack Food: An Acute Randomised Crossover Study. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 10989. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182010989

AMA Style

Brown R, Ware L, Gray AR, Chisholm A, Tey SL. Snacking on Almonds Lowers Glycaemia and Energy Intake Compared to a Popular High-Carbohydrate Snack Food: An Acute Randomised Crossover Study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(20):10989. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182010989

Chicago/Turabian Style

Brown, Rachel, Lara Ware, Andrew R. Gray, Alex Chisholm, and Siew L. Tey. 2021. "Snacking on Almonds Lowers Glycaemia and Energy Intake Compared to a Popular High-Carbohydrate Snack Food: An Acute Randomised Crossover Study" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 20: 10989. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182010989

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop