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Review

Climate Change and Child Health Inequality: A Review of Reviews

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Canadian Center for Health Economics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5T 3M6, Canada
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Centre for Health Equity Studies, Department of Public Health Sciences, Stockholm University, 10691 Stockholm, Sweden
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Temerty Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 1A8, Canada
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Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, 17177 Solna, Sweden
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Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5T 3M7, Canada
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Center for Epidemiological Research, Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Pelotas 96010-610, RS, Brazil
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Independent Researcher, Homer 22, 1rst 1, 08023 Barcelona, Spain
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School of Medicine, University of Nottingham, Derby DE22 3DT, UK
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Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 9JD, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Jacques Oosthuizen, Neil J. Hime, Peng Bi and Andrew Mathieson
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(20), 10896; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182010896
Received: 20 September 2021 / Revised: 13 October 2021 / Accepted: 14 October 2021 / Published: 17 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Driven Health Impacts)
There is growing evidence on the observed and expected consequences of climate change on population health worldwide. There is limited understanding of its consequences for child health inequalities, between and within countries. To examine these consequences and categorize the state of knowledge in this area, we conducted a review of reviews indexed in five databases (Medline, Embase, Web of Science, PsycInfo, Sociological Abstracts). Reviews that reported the effect of climate change on child health inequalities between low- and high-income children, within or between countries (high- vs low–middle-income countries; HICs and LMICs), were included. Twenty-three reviews, published between 2007 and January 2021, were included for full-text analyses. Using thematic synthesis, we identified strong descriptive, but limited quantitative, evidence that climate change exacerbates child health inequalities. Explanatory mechanisms relating climate change to child health inequalities were proposed in some reviews; for example, children in LMICs are more susceptible to the consequences of climate change than children in HICs due to limited structural and economic resources. Geographic and intergenerational inequalities emerged as additional themes from the review. Further research with an equity focus should address the effects of climate change on adolescents/youth, mental health and inequalities within countries. View Full-Text
Keywords: climate change; children; health inequality; scoping review; global health climate change; children; health inequality; scoping review; global health
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MDPI and ACS Style

Arpin, E.; Gauffin, K.; Kerr, M.; Hjern, A.; Mashford-Pringle, A.; Barros, A.; Rajmil, L.; Choonara, I.; Spencer, N. Climate Change and Child Health Inequality: A Review of Reviews. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 10896. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182010896

AMA Style

Arpin E, Gauffin K, Kerr M, Hjern A, Mashford-Pringle A, Barros A, Rajmil L, Choonara I, Spencer N. Climate Change and Child Health Inequality: A Review of Reviews. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(20):10896. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182010896

Chicago/Turabian Style

Arpin, Emmanuelle, Karl Gauffin, Meghan Kerr, Anders Hjern, Angela Mashford-Pringle, Aluisio Barros, Luis Rajmil, Imti Choonara, and Nicholas Spencer. 2021. "Climate Change and Child Health Inequality: A Review of Reviews" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 20: 10896. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182010896

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