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Article

Fraction and Number of Unemployed Associated with Self-Reported Low Back Pain: A Nation-Wide Cross-Sectional Study in Japan

1
Nara Prefectural Health Research Center, Nara Medical University, Kashihara 634-8521, Nara, Japan
2
Division of Occupational and Environmental Health, Department of Social Medicine, Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu 520-2192, Shiga, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Sergio Iavicoli, Vincenzo Denaro, Gianluca Vadalà and Fabrizio Russo
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(20), 10760; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182010760
Received: 21 July 2021 / Revised: 9 October 2021 / Accepted: 10 October 2021 / Published: 13 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Low Back Pain (LBP))
This study examined a cross-sectional association between self-reported low back pain (LBP) and unemployment among working-age people, and estimated the impact of self-reported LBP on unemployment. We used anonymized data from a nationally representative survey (24,854 men and 26,549 women aged 20–64 years). The generalized estimating equations of the multivariable Poisson regression models stratified by gender were used to estimate the adjusted prevalence ratio (PR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for unemployment. The population attributable fraction (PAF) was calculated using Levin’s method, with the substitution method for 95% CI estimation. The prevalence of self-reported LBP was 9.0% in men and 11.1% in women. The prevalence of unemployment was 9.3% in men and 31.7% in women. After adjusting for age, socio-economic status, lifestyle habits, and comorbidities, the PR (95% CI) for the unemployment of the LBP group was 1.32 (1.19–1.47) in men and 1.01 (0.96–1.07) in women, compared with the respective non-LBP group. The PAF (95% CI) of unemployment associated with self-reported LBP was 2.8% (1.6%, 4.2%) in men. Because the total population of Japanese men aged 20–64 in 2013 was 36,851 thousand, it was estimated that unemployment in 1037 thousand of the Japanese male working population was LBP-related. View Full-Text
Keywords: low back pain; unemployment; gender difference; population attributable fraction; cross-sectional studies low back pain; unemployment; gender difference; population attributable fraction; cross-sectional studies
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MDPI and ACS Style

Tomioka, K.; Kitahara, T.; Shima, M.; Saeki, K. Fraction and Number of Unemployed Associated with Self-Reported Low Back Pain: A Nation-Wide Cross-Sectional Study in Japan. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 10760. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182010760

AMA Style

Tomioka K, Kitahara T, Shima M, Saeki K. Fraction and Number of Unemployed Associated with Self-Reported Low Back Pain: A Nation-Wide Cross-Sectional Study in Japan. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(20):10760. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182010760

Chicago/Turabian Style

Tomioka, Kimiko, Teruyo Kitahara, Midori Shima, and Keigo Saeki. 2021. "Fraction and Number of Unemployed Associated with Self-Reported Low Back Pain: A Nation-Wide Cross-Sectional Study in Japan" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 20: 10760. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182010760

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