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Article

Higher Neighborhood Population Density Is Associated with Lower Potassium Intake in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL)

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Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461, USA
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Department of Biostatistics, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
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Department of Preventive Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL 60611, USA
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Department of Epidemiology, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA
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Department of Psychology, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL 33124, USA
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Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics and Urban Health Collective, Dornsife School of Public Health, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
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Public Health Sciences Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA 98109, USA
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Department of Biostatistics, Epidemiology and Informatics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(20), 10716; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182010716
Received: 26 August 2021 / Revised: 4 October 2021 / Accepted: 10 October 2021 / Published: 13 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neighborhoods and Cardiovascular Risk)
Current U.S. dietary guidelines recommend a daily potassium intake of 3400 mg/day for men and 2600 mg/day for women. Sub-optimal access to nutrient-rich foods may limit potassium intake and increase cardiometabolic risk. We examined the association of neighborhood characteristics related to food availability with potassium intake in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL). 13,835 participants completed a 24-h dietary recall assessment and had complete covariates. Self-reported potassium intake was calibrated with an objective 24-h urinary potassium biomarker, using equations developed in the SOL Nutrition & Physical Activity Assessment Study (SOLNAS, N = 440). Neighborhood population density, median household income, Hispanic/Latino diversity, and a retail food environment index by census tract were obtained. Linear regression assessed associations with 24-h potassium intake, adjusting for individual-level and neighborhood confounders. Mean 24-h potassium was 2629 mg/day based on the SOLNAS biomarker and 2702 mg/day using multiple imputation and HCHS/SOL biomarker calibration. Compared with the lowest quartile of neighborhood population density, living in the highest quartile was associated with a 26% lower potassium intake in SOLNAS (adjusted fold-change 0.74, 95% CI 0.59–0.94) and a 39% lower intake in HCHS/SOL (adjusted fold-change 0.61 95% CI 0.45–0.84). Results were only partially explained by the retail food environment. The mechanisms by which population density affects potassium intake should be further studied.
Keywords: potassium; nutrition; neighborhood; population density; Hispanic Americans; Latinos; food environment; built environment; regression calibration potassium; nutrition; neighborhood; population density; Hispanic Americans; Latinos; food environment; built environment; regression calibration
MDPI and ACS Style

Hanna, D.B.; Hua, S.; Gonzalez, F., II; Kershaw, K.N.; Rundle, A.G.; Van Horn, L.V.; Wylie-Rosett, J.; Gellman, M.D.; Lovasi, G.S.; Kaplan, R.C.; Mossavar-Rahmani, Y.; Shaw, P.A. Higher Neighborhood Population Density Is Associated with Lower Potassium Intake in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL). Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 10716. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182010716

AMA Style

Hanna DB, Hua S, Gonzalez F II, Kershaw KN, Rundle AG, Van Horn LV, Wylie-Rosett J, Gellman MD, Lovasi GS, Kaplan RC, Mossavar-Rahmani Y, Shaw PA. Higher Neighborhood Population Density Is Associated with Lower Potassium Intake in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL). International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(20):10716. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182010716

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hanna, David B., Simin Hua, Franklyn Gonzalez II, Kiarri N. Kershaw, Andrew G. Rundle, Linda V. Van Horn, Judith Wylie-Rosett, Marc D. Gellman, Gina S. Lovasi, Robert C. Kaplan, Yasmin Mossavar-Rahmani, and Pamela A. Shaw 2021. "Higher Neighborhood Population Density Is Associated with Lower Potassium Intake in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL)" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 20: 10716. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182010716

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