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Open AccessArticle

Incidence and Length of Sickness Absence among Hierarchical Occupational Classes and Non-Wage-Earners: A Register Study of 1.6 Million Finns

1
Research Unit, The Social Insurance Institution of Finland, P.O. Box 450, 00056 KELA, Helsinki, Finland
2
Analytics Unit, The Social Insurance Institution of Finland, P.O. Box 450, 00056 KELA, Helsinki, Finland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(2), 501; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18020501
Received: 25 November 2020 / Revised: 30 December 2020 / Accepted: 6 January 2021 / Published: 9 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Occupational Safety and Health)
Socioeconomic differences in sickness absence are well known, but previous studies have tended to focus on wage earners only. This study examined incidence and length of sickness absence comparing the employee groups of upper and lower non-manual employees and manual workers, but also entrepreneurs, the unemployed and other non-wage-earners. The study utilized register data on a nationally representative 70% sample of Finns aged 25–62 at the end of year 2012 (N = 1,615,352). Sickness absence spells compensated by sickness allowance and initiated during 2013 were retrieved from the register of the Social Insurance Institution of Finland (SIIF) and followed until the end of each episode and linked to socio-demographic covariates collected from the registers of the SIIF and of Statistics Finland. Zero-inflated negative binomial regression was used in multivariate models. After adjusting for age, marital status, region and income, there were clear differences in the occurrence and length of sickness absence across socioeconomic groups. Compared to upper non-manual employees, lower non-manual employees and especially manual workers had higher cumulative annual incidence of sickness absence among both men and women, but the entrepreneurs, the unemployed and other non-wage-earners had a clearly higher expected number of sickness absence days. Results varied by diagnostic group. The results highlight the importance of different types of preventive measures for reducing the occurrence of sickness absence and for preventing prolongations of sickness absence spells in different socioeconomic groups. View Full-Text
Keywords: sickness absence; social determinants; socioeconomic; occupational class; entrepreneurs; unemployed sickness absence; social determinants; socioeconomic; occupational class; entrepreneurs; unemployed
MDPI and ACS Style

Blomgren, J.; Jäppinen, S. Incidence and Length of Sickness Absence among Hierarchical Occupational Classes and Non-Wage-Earners: A Register Study of 1.6 Million Finns. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 501. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18020501

AMA Style

Blomgren J, Jäppinen S. Incidence and Length of Sickness Absence among Hierarchical Occupational Classes and Non-Wage-Earners: A Register Study of 1.6 Million Finns. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(2):501. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18020501

Chicago/Turabian Style

Blomgren, Jenni; Jäppinen, Sauli. 2021. "Incidence and Length of Sickness Absence among Hierarchical Occupational Classes and Non-Wage-Earners: A Register Study of 1.6 Million Finns" Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 18, no. 2: 501. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18020501

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Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

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