The Impact of Micro and Macro Level Factors on the Working and Living Conditions of Migrant Care Workers in Italy and Israel—A Scoping Review
1.2. Rationale for Comparing Italy and Israel
1.3. Aims and Research Question
What are the scope, main topics, and gaps in the existing academic literature on how micro and macro level indicators detailed in the MFTCM impact the working and living conditions and opportunities of live-in MCWs in Italy and Israel?
2. Materials and Methods
- Identifying the research question;
- Identifying relevant studies;
- Study selection;
- Charting the data;
- Collating, summarizing and reporting the results.
4.1. Summary of This Review
4.2. Links to the Existing Literature
4.3. Implications for Policy and Practice
4.4. Areas for Future Research
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
|Section||Item||Prisma-Scr Checklist Item||Reported On Page #|
|Title||1||Identify the report as a scoping review.||1|
|Structured summary||2||Provide a structured summary that includes (as applicable): background, objectives, eligibility criteria, sources of evidence, charting methods, results, and conclusions that relate to the review questions and objectives.||1|
|Rationale||3||Describe the rationale for the review in the context of what is already known. Explain why the review questions/objectives lend themselves to a scoping review approach.||4–5|
|Objectives||4||Provide an explicit statement of the questions and objectives being addressed with reference to their key elements (e.g., population or participants, concepts, and context) or other relevant key elements used to conceptualize the review questions and/or objectives.||5|
|Protocol and registration||5||Indicate whether a review protocol exists; state if and where it can be accessed (e.g., a Web address); and if available, provide registration information, including the registration number.||5|
|Eligibility criteria||6||Specify characteristics of the sources of evidence used as eligibility criteria (e.g., years considered, language, and publication status), and provide a rationale.||6|
|Information sources *||7||Describe all information sources in the search (e.g., databases with dates of coverage and contact with authors to identify additional sources), as well as the date the most recent search was executed.||6|
|Search||8||Present the full electronic search strategy for at least 1 database, including any limits used, such that it could be repeated.||28|
|Selection of sources of evidence †||9||State the process for selecting sources of evidence (i.e., screening and eligibility) included in the scoping review.||6|
|Data charting process ‡||10||Describe the methods of charting data from the included sources of evidence (e.g., calibrated forms or forms that have been tested by the team before their use, and whether data charting was done independently or in duplicate) and any processes for obtaining and confirming data from investigators.||7|
|Data items||11||List and define all variables for which data were sought and any assumptions and simplifications made.||7, 11|
|Critical appraisal of individual sources of evidence §||12||If done, provide a rationale for conducting a critical appraisal of included sources of evidence; describe the methods used and how this information was used in any data synthesis (if appropriate).||N/A|
|Synthesis of results||13||Describe the methods of handling and summarizing the data that were charted.||14|
|Selection of sources of evidence||14||Give numbers of sources of evidence screened, assessed for eligibility, and included in the review, with reasons for exclusions at each stage, ideally using a flow diagram.||6–7|
|Characteristics of sources of evidence||15||For each source of evidence, present characteristics for which data were charted and provide the citations.||7–14|
|Critical appraisal within sources of evidence||16||If done, present data on critical appraisal of included sources of evidence (see item 12).||N/A|
|Results of individual sources of evidence||17||For each included source of evidence, present the relevant data that were charted that relate to the review questions and objectives.||7–14|
|Synthesis of results||18||Summarize and/or present the charting results as they relate to the review questions and objectives.||15–21|
|Summary of evidence||19||Summarize the main results (including an overview of concepts, themes, and types of evidence available), link to the review questions and objectives, and consider the relevance to key groups.||21–24|
|Limitations||20||Discuss the limitations of the scoping review process.||25|
|Conclusions||21||Provide a general interpretation of the results with respect to the review questions and objectives, as well as potential implications and/or next steps.||25–26|
|Funding||22||Describe sources of funding for the included sources of evidence, as well as sources of funding for the scoping review. Describe the role of the funders of the scoping review.||26|
Appendix B. Boolean Operators Used
Appendix C. References Including for Mapping and Thematic Analysis
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|Study||Design||Field of Journal||Country Focus||Sample||Study Aim|
|Ayalon et al., 2015 ||Qualitative||Health Services Research and Policy||Israel||17 CRs 1, 16 family members 2, 20 MCWs 3 and 20 nurses||Understand the role of live-in MCWs in providing social care to patients in hospitals|
|Fusco et al., 2015 ||Quantitative||Geriatrics and Gerontology||Italy||506 CRs||Determine the impact of how being assisted by MCWs affects rehospitalization rates|
|Green and Ayalon, 2015 ||Quantitative||Gerontology||Israel||338 MCWs, 224 CRs, and 442 family members||Examine the extent to which people in need of support, family members, and MCWs are familiar with the rights of live-in MCWs|
|Mazuz, 2015 ||Qualitative||Global Health||Israel||1 triad (CR, family member, and MCW)||To analyze the use of somatic care practices by live-in MCWs|
|Meyer, 2015 ||Qualitative||Anthropology||Italy||MCWs—does not specify how many||Examine how MCWs negotiate their work lives|
|Ayalon and Roziner, 2016 ||Quantitative||Ageing Mental Health||Israel||23 triads (MCWs, CRs and family members)||Evaluate the satisfaction of relationships between people in need of support, their family members, and home care workers|
|Barbabella et al., 2016 ||Quantitative||Gerontology||Italy||438 CRs–primary family caregiver dyads||Investigate the socio-economic predictors of hiring MCWs|
|Boccagni, 2016 ||Qualitative||Social Politics||Italy||30 MCWs||To explore women MCWs mediation between different forms of well-being and to understand how these dimensions are understood, experienced and/or displaced while abroad|
|Green and Ayalon, 2016 ||Quantitative||Interpersonal Violence||Israel||187 MCWs||Explore help-seeking behaviours among MCWs who have experienced work-related abuse|
|Kemp and Kfir, 2016 ||Qualitative||Social Problems||Israel||15 NGO 4 staff members||Explain how civil society actors have mediated between the bio-political contradiction that MCWs are wanted workers but as unwanted mothers|
|Baldassar, Ferrero and Portis, 2017 ||Qualitative||Global Studies in Culture and Power||Italy||8 MCWs and 10 CRs and family members||Explain how kinning processes between MCWs and people in need of support develops|
|Cordini and Ranci, 2017 ||Qualitative||Social Policy||Italy||Content analysis of the public discourse in newspapers||Provide evidence on how market dynamics have allowed governments to shift the responsibility of providing home care to MCWs|
|Palumbo, 2017 ||Qualitative||Immigrant and Refugee studies||Italy||3 MCWs, 4 judicial and law enforcement authorities, 3 lawyers, 4 policymakers, 4 government representatives, 5 representatives of NGOs, 3 social workers, 2 trade unionists and 2 experts||Analysis of why exploitation in the domestic work sector is rarely acknowledged or addressed with polices around trafficking and exploitation|
|Rugolotto, Laroto, and van der Geest, 2017 ||Qualitative||Migration, Health and Social Care||Italy||20 MCWs, and 5 family members||Describe how migration affects the care being provided to people in need of support|
|Scrinzi, 2017 ||Qualitative||Western European Politics||Italy||20 party members of a political party||Examine the relationship between anti-immigration politics and the racialized and gendered division of care work|
|Boccagni, 2018 ||Qualitative||Housing Studies||Italy||165 MCWs||Analyze how live-in MCWs feel in their everyday lives abroad|
|Bonatti and Muniandy, 2018 ||Qualitative||Migration Studies||Italy and Malaysia||16 MCWs in Italy and 15 MCWs in Malaysia||Explain how migrant women develop and pursue their aspirations by examining the institutional limitations they face|
|Cherubini, Geymonat, and Marchetti, 2018 ||Qualitative||Participation and Conflict||Italy, Colombia, the Philippines, and Taiwan||Policy analysis of laws||Show how the ILO Domestic Workers Convention (No. 189) has been incorporated or resisted in local contexts|
|Green and Ayalon, 2018 ||Quantitative||Health Policy Research||Israel||338 MCWs and 185 Israeli care workers||Assess the working conditions and prevalence of abuse and exploitation faced by live-in MCWs and live-out local care workers|
|Nicolescu, 2018 ||Qualitative||East Central Europe||Italy||34 MCWs||Discuss how migrating to work in the care sectors is a transborder continuity of autonomy and employment practices that survive socialism|
|Bronstein, 2019 ||Qualitative||Documentation||Israel||20 MCWs||Examine the life stories of MCWs by analyzing different aspects of information behaviour that has emerged from their narratives through a transnational perspective|
|Brown, 2019 ||Qualitative||Feminist theory||Israel/Palestine||15 employers of MCWs 5||Examine the politics of the MCW–employer relationship as it unfolds within the Jewish-Israeli home|
|Cohen-Mansfield, 2019 ||Mixed methods—qualitative and qualitative||Gerontology||Israel||111 family members, 61 CRs, and 98 MCWs||Describe the social engagement care provided by live-in MCWs for frail older adults in comparison with the wishes of people in need of support and their families’ wishes for this care|
|Golan and Babis, 2019 ||Qualitative||Information, Communication and Society||Israel||800 Facebook posts||Explain how social networking site expressions shape an occupational community of temporary migrant workers|
|Ranci and Arlotti, 2019 ||Mixed methods—qualitative and qualitative||Policy and Society||Italy||60 key informants and INPS 6 data||Show how non-take up rates of health services can be explained by individually situated decisions taken by beneficiaries based on cost-benefit evaluations that are rooted in social attitudes shaped by existing institutional contexts|
|Nicolescu, 2019 ||Qualitative||Anthropology and Aging||Italy||34 MCWS and 24 employers of MCWs||Explore the success of the migrant in the family model and the mechanisms that bond MCWs and people in need of support in a mutual dependency|
|Solari, 2019 ||Qualitative||Sociology||Italy||61 MCWs and 39 adult children whose parent(s) were abroad||Uncover the meanings that MCWs and their non-migrant children assign to monetary and social remittances|
|Shinan-Altman and Ayalon, 2019 ||Quantitative||Ageing Mental Health||Israel||338 MCWs and 185 Israeli care workers||Examine the perceived control among live-in MCWs and live-out local care workers and identify the factors that contribute to this perceived control|
|Scrinzi, 2019 ||Qualitative||Immigrant and Refugee Studies||Italy||10 managers of the social cooperatives||Examine how strategies adopted by managers at social cooperatives challenge dominated gendered constructs of care work|
|Teshuva et al., 2019 ||Mixed methods—qualitative and qualitative||Ageing and Society||Israel||116 MCWs and 73 CRs||Explore the quality and the nature of relationships between live-in MCWs and people in need of support|
|Vianello, Finotelli and Brey, 2019 ||Qualitative||Ethnic and Migration Studies||Italy and Spain||10 MCWs in Italy and 10 MCWs in Spain||Investigate the process of residence permit renewals among migrants|
|Casanova, Tur-Sinai and Lamura, 2020 ||Qualitative||Ageing and Social Policy||Italy and Israel||Long-term care experts—12 in Israel, 27 in Italy||Identify the challenges and responses that have been adopted or should be adopted to improve long- term care provision in Italy and Israel|
|Holler, 2020 ||Qualitative||Social Policy and Administration||Israel||30 CRs||Examine the lived experience of people claiming disability benefits|
|Culture, Ethnicity and Religion||[37,38,44,50,55,56]||[39,45,48,64,65,67,68,71]|
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Fisher, O. The Impact of Micro and Macro Level Factors on the Working and Living Conditions of Migrant Care Workers in Italy and Israel—A Scoping Review. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 420. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18020420
Fisher O. The Impact of Micro and Macro Level Factors on the Working and Living Conditions of Migrant Care Workers in Italy and Israel—A Scoping Review. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(2):420. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18020420Chicago/Turabian Style
Fisher, Oliver. 2021. "The Impact of Micro and Macro Level Factors on the Working and Living Conditions of Migrant Care Workers in Italy and Israel—A Scoping Review" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 2: 420. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18020420