Next Article in Journal
Collaborative Assessment and Health Risk of Heavy Metals in Soils and Tea Leaves in the Southwest Region of China
Previous Article in Journal
Detection of COVID-19 in Chest X-ray Images: A Big Data Enabled Deep Learning Approach
Previous Article in Special Issue
Green Exercise: Can Nature Video Benefit Isometric Exercise?
Article

Health and Wellbeing Benefits from Nature Experiences in Tropical Settings Depend on Strength of Connection to Nature

1
Centre for Biodiversity and Conservation Sciences, School of Biological Sciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane 4072, Australia
2
Department of Ecosystem Services, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research (UFZ), 04318 Leipzig, Germany
3
German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv) Halle-Jena-Leipzig, 04103 Leipzig, Germany
4
School of Communication and Arts, University of Queensland, Brisbane 4072, Australia
5
Department of Biological Sciences, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117558, Singapore
6
National Parks Board, Singapore 259569, Singapore
7
Zealandia Centre for People and Nature, Wellington 6012, New Zealand
8
Environment & Sustainability Institute, University of Exeter, Cornwall TR10 9FE, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(19), 10149; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph181910149
Received: 31 August 2021 / Revised: 20 September 2021 / Accepted: 24 September 2021 / Published: 27 September 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Health Impact of Nature Exposure and Green Exercise)
A growing number of policies and programmes in cities aim to increase the time people spend in nature for the health and wellbeing benefits delivered by such interactions. Yet, there is little research investigating the extent to which, and for whom, nature experiences deliver such benefits outside Europe, North America, and Australia. Here, we assessed the relationships between nature dose (frequency, duration, and intensity) and three mental wellbeing (depression, stress, and anxiety) and two physical health (high blood pressure, diabetes) outcomes in Singapore, an intensely urbanised tropical city. Our analyses accounted for individual factors, including socio-economic status, nature connection (nature relatedness), and whether people with poor health are prevented by their condition from visiting green spaces. Our results show that the association between nature dose (specifically duration) and mental wellbeing is moderated by a nature connection. Specifically, people with a stronger nature connection were less likely to be depressed, stressed, and anxious, regardless of the duration of their nature dose. For those with a weaker connection to nature, spending longer in nature was associated with being more depressed, stressed, and anxious. We did not find a relationship between nature dose and high blood pressure or diabetes. Our results highlight that the relationship between nature dose and wellbeing might vary substantially among cities. View Full-Text
Keywords: urbanisation; public health; health and wellbeing; nature exposure; nature experiences; nature dose urbanisation; public health; health and wellbeing; nature exposure; nature experiences; nature dose
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Oh, R.R.Y.; Fielding, K.S.; Chang, C.-C.; Nghiem, L.T.P.; Tan, C.L.Y.; Quazi, S.A.; Shanahan, D.F.; Gaston, K.J.; Carrasco, R.L.; Fuller, R.A. Health and Wellbeing Benefits from Nature Experiences in Tropical Settings Depend on Strength of Connection to Nature. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 10149. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph181910149

AMA Style

Oh RRY, Fielding KS, Chang C-C, Nghiem LTP, Tan CLY, Quazi SA, Shanahan DF, Gaston KJ, Carrasco RL, Fuller RA. Health and Wellbeing Benefits from Nature Experiences in Tropical Settings Depend on Strength of Connection to Nature. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(19):10149. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph181910149

Chicago/Turabian Style

Oh, Rachel R.Y., Kelly S. Fielding, Chia-Chen Chang, Le T.P. Nghiem, Claudia L.Y. Tan, Shimona A. Quazi, Danielle F. Shanahan, Kevin J. Gaston, Roman L. Carrasco, and Richard A. Fuller 2021. "Health and Wellbeing Benefits from Nature Experiences in Tropical Settings Depend on Strength of Connection to Nature" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 19: 10149. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph181910149

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop