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Review

Diverse Manifestations of COVID-19: Some Suggested Mechanisms

1
Department of Biological Sciences, Alcorn State University, Lorman, MS 39096, USA
2
Department of Biology, South Texas College, McAllen, TX 78501, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Amal K. Mitra, Dawn Bishop McLin, Abdullah Baqui and Sarah Buxbaum
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(18), 9785; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18189785
Received: 20 July 2021 / Revised: 9 September 2021 / Accepted: 13 September 2021 / Published: 17 September 2021
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the cause of the novel respiratory disease COVID-19, has reached pandemic status and presents a wide range of manifestations of diverse magnitude, including fever, cough, shortness of breath, and damage to vital organs, such as the heart, lung, kidney, and brain. Normally, older individuals and those with underlying health issues are more at risk. However, about 40% of COVID-19 positive individuals are asymptomatic. This review aims to identify suggested mechanisms of diverse manifestations of COVID-19. Studies suggest that T cell-mediated immunity and specific and/or nonspecific immunity from other vaccines could protect against SARS-CoV-2. The potential role of cross-reacting antibodies to coronaviruses that cause the common cold, mumps virus, polio virus, and pneumococcal bacteria are also suggested to help protect against COVID-19. Decreased production of Type I interferons (IFN-α and IFN-β) could also be linked to COVID-19 manifestations. Several studies suggest that ACE2 cell membrane receptors are involved in SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, the relationship between an abundance of ACE2 receptors and the infectivity of the virus is unknown. Unlocking these manifestation mysteries could be crucial as this could help researchers better understand the virulence, pathology, and immune responses associated with SARS-CoV-2, leading to the development of effective therapies and treatment plans. View Full-Text
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; coronaviruses; clinical manifestations; BCG; MMR vaccines; angiotensin I and II; ACE2 receptors; asymptomatic infection SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; coronaviruses; clinical manifestations; BCG; MMR vaccines; angiotensin I and II; ACE2 receptors; asymptomatic infection
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zaman, M.S.; Sizemore, R.C. Diverse Manifestations of COVID-19: Some Suggested Mechanisms. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 9785. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18189785

AMA Style

Zaman MS, Sizemore RC. Diverse Manifestations of COVID-19: Some Suggested Mechanisms. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(18):9785. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18189785

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zaman, Md S., and Robert C. Sizemore. 2021. "Diverse Manifestations of COVID-19: Some Suggested Mechanisms" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 18: 9785. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18189785

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