2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Study Design
2.2. Participants’ Inclusion Criteria and Recruitment Strategy
2.3. Data Collection Methodology and Tools
2.4. Data Analysis Methodology
3.1. Participants’ Description
3.2. Overview of User Requirements as Determinants of Use S of a VC
3.3. What Are the User Requirements of a VC Based on an ECA for Motivating Older Adults in Transition to Retirement to Adopt a Healthy Lifestyle?
3.3.1. End-Users’ Feelings on the Concept and Usefulness of the Coaching System
3.3.2. End-Users’ Opinion on the Intervention Areas of the Virtual Coach
3.3.3. End-Users’ Opinions on the Frequency of Use of the Virtual Coach
3.3.4. End-Users’ Opinions on the Risks of the Virtual Coach
3.3.5. Design of the ECA
3.4. How Can a Virtual Coach System Address The Active and Healthy Ageing Dimensions, Even at COVID-19 Times?
3.4.1. The VC Functions Promoting Physical Health
3.4.2. The VC Functions Promoting Emotional Well-Being
3.4.3. The VC Functions Promoting Social Relationships and Participation
3.4.4. The Influence of the COVID-19 Outbreak on the End-Users’ Opinions about the Virtual Coach’s Coach Functions
4.1. What Are the User Requirements of a VC Based on an ECA for Motivating Older Adults in Transition to Retirement to Adopt a Healthy Lifestyle?
4.2. How Can a Virtual Coach System Address The Active and Healthy Ageing Dimensions, Even at COVID-19 Time?
4.3. Suggestions for Future Design and Research
4.4. Study Limitations and Suggestions for Future Research
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
|Feelings and needs on retirement (retirement representations)|
|Concept: feelings and needs regarding the coaching system|
|Functions and services|
|Appearance and usage|
|Frequency of use of the ECA in daily life|
|Design and usability|
|Tasks, functions and usefulness|
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|Wave 1||Older Workers||Retirees||Colleagues Relatives||Total|
|Wave 2||Older Workers||Retirees||Colleagues Relatives||Total|
|Male||Female||Retirees||Colleagues of Retirees||Older Workers|
|RQ1 Which Are the User Requirements of a VC Based on an ECA for Training Older Adults in Transition to Retirement and Motivating Them to Adopt Healthy Lifestyle?||RQ2 How Can a VC Mirror the Healthy Ageing Dimensions, Especially during COVID-19 Times?|
|User Requirements Themes||Codes||User Requirements Themes||Codes|
|End-users’ opinion on the VC functions||Encouraging healthy lifestyle (A and NL).|
Supporting financial planning and concrete activities of retirees (NL).
Supporting older people during the transition for managing financial aspects, social activities, health and life style, legal issues (A, IT).
Helping people with physical and cognitive limitations (NL).
Use of the virtual coach at company level for informing older workers on retirement legal and financial issues (IT).
Virtual coach running on portable device (A, IT, NL).
Stimulating retirees’ socialization, interests and brain activities (IT).
|Physical activity functions||Monitoring end-users’ health (A)|
Motivating older workers and retirees to practice physical activity (A, IT, NL).
Customising physical activities especially for people with special chronic disease (A).
Reminding and planning health prevention and screening appointments (IT).
Stimulating brain activity (A, NL).
use of the VC
|Every day use of the virtual coach (A and NL).|
The use of the virtual coach depends on the free time available, so it is most for retirees (NL).
The use of the virtual coach depends on one’s mood (A).
The use of the virtual coach depends on users’ family relationships and social condition (IT).
|Helping older workers and retirees have a meaningful life and find purpose in life. Reduce stress and hindering depression (A, IT, NL). |
Informing users on retirement legislations.
|Risks||Stigmatization, privacy violation, substitution of users’ decision making capability (A, IT, NL).||Social relationships functions||Promoting the community construction (IT).|
Foster retirees’ social relationships (IT).
Helping older workers and retirees share and discuss objectives and goals (IT).
Promoting the competition among the users for reaching the goals (A, NL).
|Design of |
|Voice control and setting (A, IT, NL).|
Reactive (A, IT, NL).
Customizable (age, gender, outfit, voice) (A, IT, NL).
More expressive and sympathetic (IT).
Convincing, motivating and respectful language (i.e., not directive and patronising) (A, IT, NL).
Bright and no purple background (IT).
Interactive icons giving motivating feedback (e. g. “Well done! You reached your goal!”).
Pleasant text field and colours (A, NL).
|Useful functions during the COVID-19 outbreak in|
the 3 realms
|Encouraging retirees and older workers in smart-working to practice indoor physical and yoga exercises (A, IT, NL).|
Encouraging retirees re-start going out as soon as possible, according to the restrictions (A, IT, NL).
Providing information on movement/social restrictions measures (A, NL).
Providing mindfulness exercises, virtual visits, courses and games for emotional well-being (A, IT, NL).
Suggesting e-learning opportunities (NL).
It might help people ask for social and health support (NL).
Creating groups of users based on common interests (e.g., history, bricolage, etc.) (IT).
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