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Article

Influence of Non-Occupational Physical Activity on Burnout Syndrome, Job Satisfaction, Stress and Recovery in Fitness Professionals

1
IGOID Research Group, Department of Physical Activity and Sport Sciences, University of Castilla-La Mancha, 45071 Toledo, Spain
2
College of Health Sciences, University of Rhode Island, 55 Lower College Road, Kingston, RI 02881, USA
3
Centre for Sport, Exercise and Life Sciences (CSELS), Coventry University, Coventry CV1 5FB, UK
4
School of Sport Sciences, Universidad Europea de Madrid, 28670 Madrid, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(18), 9489; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18189489
Received: 6 July 2021 / Revised: 2 September 2021 / Accepted: 4 September 2021 / Published: 8 September 2021
Background: This study aimed (1) to analyse the effect of non-occupational physical activity (NOPA) on the stress levels of fitness professionals, and (2) to apply a questionnaire to workers measuring burnout syndrome, working conditions and job satisfaction, and to compare the results with physiological stress and recovery measured objectively through heart rate variability (HRV). Methods: The HRV of 26 fitness instructors was recorded during 2–5 workdays using Firstbeat Bodyguard 2. Participants also completed a questionnaire (CESQT) measuring working conditions and job satisfaction variables and occupational burnout syndrome. Results: NOPA showed a negative association with both the percentage of stress (p < 0.05) and stress–recovery ratio (p < 0.01), and a positive association with the percentage of recovery (p < 0.05). Better work conditions (working hours, salary satisfaction and length of service) were associated with lower stress in fitness professionals. Conclusion: NOPA appears to improve the stress levels of fitness instructors in this study cohort. Self-reported burnout levels measured through the CESQT questionnaire do not coincide with the physiological stress responses measured through HRV. Better working conditions appear to reduce the stress response in fitness professionals. View Full-Text
Keywords: heart rate variability; personal trainer; CESQT questionnaire; HRV biofeedback; mobile health heart rate variability; personal trainer; CESQT questionnaire; HRV biofeedback; mobile health
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MDPI and ACS Style

Marín-Farrona, M.J.; León-Jiménez, M.; García-Unanue, J.; Gallardo, L.; Liguori, G.; López-Fernández, J. Influence of Non-Occupational Physical Activity on Burnout Syndrome, Job Satisfaction, Stress and Recovery in Fitness Professionals. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 9489. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18189489

AMA Style

Marín-Farrona MJ, León-Jiménez M, García-Unanue J, Gallardo L, Liguori G, López-Fernández J. Influence of Non-Occupational Physical Activity on Burnout Syndrome, Job Satisfaction, Stress and Recovery in Fitness Professionals. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(18):9489. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18189489

Chicago/Turabian Style

Marín-Farrona, María Jesús, Manuel León-Jiménez, Jorge García-Unanue, Leonor Gallardo, Gary Liguori, and Jorge López-Fernández. 2021. "Influence of Non-Occupational Physical Activity on Burnout Syndrome, Job Satisfaction, Stress and Recovery in Fitness Professionals" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 18: 9489. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18189489

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