Next Article in Journal
A Study on Physical Exercise and General Mobility in People with Cerebral Palsy: Health through Costless Routines
Next Article in Special Issue
Dental-Plaque Decontamination around Dental Brackets Using Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy: An In Vitro Study
Previous Article in Journal
COVID-19 and Unmet Healthcare Needs of Older People: Did Inequity Arise in Europe?
Previous Article in Special Issue
Effect of Platelet-Rich Fibrin Application on Non-Infectious Complications after Surgical Extraction of Impacted Mandibular Third Molars
Article

COVID-19 Pandemic: Effect of Different Face Masks on Self-Perceived Dry Mouth and Halitosis

1
Department of Preventive Dentistry, Periodontology and Cariology, University Medical Center Göttingen, 37075 Göttingen, Germany
2
Institute of Infection Control and Infectious Diseases, University Medical Center Göttingen, 37075 Göttingen, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(17), 9180; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18179180
Received: 21 July 2021 / Revised: 25 August 2021 / Accepted: 28 August 2021 / Published: 31 August 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research, Investigation and Treatment on Oral Health)
Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the use of face masks has increased, resulting in potential health-related side-effects. Therefore, the study aimed to analyse the effect of wearing face masks on self-perceived dry mouth and halitosis. A questionnaire addressing the daily wearing time of different face masks (community masks, surgical/medical masks and KN95-/N95-/FFP2-masks) and self-perceived dry mouth and halitosis was given to adults attending or working at a university hospital. Statistical analysis was performed using Wilcoxon signed-rank test and multiple linear regression analysis (p < 0.05). 3750 participants (age: 50.4 ± 15.5 years; 60.0% female) were included. During the pandemic, face masks were used for 4.7 ± 3.8 h per day: community masks: 0.9 ± 2.0 h, medical/surgical masks: 1.9 ± 2.8 h and KN95-/N95-/FFP2-masks: 1.9 ± 2.5 h per day. The use of face masks significantly increased self-perceived dry mouth and halitosis (both p < 0.001). Self-perceived dry mouth and halitosis increased with increasing wearing time (community masks: dry mouth: p < 0.001, halitosis: p = 0.014; medical/surgical masks: both: p < 0.001; KN95-/N95-/FFP2-masks: dry mouth: p < 0.001, halitosis: p = 0.011). The perception of dry mouth and halitosis was increased in females compared to males (both: p < 0.001). Participants used to wearing face masks prior to the pandemic perceived dry mouth to a higher extent (p = 0.043). Self-perceived halitosis was lower in older than in younger participants (p < 0.001). Due to the increased perception of dry mouth and halitosis, people might abstain from wearing face masks. Further studies need to analyse measurable changes in dry mouth or halitosis. View Full-Text
Keywords: COVID-19; dry mouth; face masks; halitosis COVID-19; dry mouth; face masks; halitosis
MDPI and ACS Style

Kanzow, P.; Dylla, V.; Mahler, A.M.; Hrasky, V.; Rödig, T.; Barre, F.; Scheithauer, S.; Wiegand, A. COVID-19 Pandemic: Effect of Different Face Masks on Self-Perceived Dry Mouth and Halitosis. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 9180. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18179180

AMA Style

Kanzow P, Dylla V, Mahler AM, Hrasky V, Rödig T, Barre F, Scheithauer S, Wiegand A. COVID-19 Pandemic: Effect of Different Face Masks on Self-Perceived Dry Mouth and Halitosis. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(17):9180. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18179180

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kanzow, Philipp, Viktoria Dylla, Alannah M. Mahler, Valentina Hrasky, Tina Rödig, Felix Barre, Simone Scheithauer, and Annette Wiegand. 2021. "COVID-19 Pandemic: Effect of Different Face Masks on Self-Perceived Dry Mouth and Halitosis" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 17: 9180. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18179180

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop