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Effect of Distraction Intervention for Needle-Related Pain and Distress in Children: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Department of Nursing Science, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 28644, Korea
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Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(17), 9159; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18179159
Received: 5 August 2021 / Revised: 24 August 2021 / Accepted: 28 August 2021 / Published: 31 August 2021
(This article belongs to the Topic Oncogenomics and Pediatric Health)
A systematic review and meta-analysis conducted to evaluate the combined effect of distraction intervention for needle-related pain in order to provide the basis for developing an effective nursing intervention for children. We searched three electronic databases, PubMed, Embase, and CINAHL, for original articles published in the period from 1 January 2011 to 31 July 2019. In addition, a manual search was performed on the basis of references in the literature and the references of the articles in pursuit of comprehensive data until 10 December 2019. Meta-analysis was performed by the synthesis of the effect size, homogeneity, heterogeneity, and trim-and-fill method using MIX 2.0 Pro. Well-planned RCTs, single-center studies, high-quality studies, participants older than 10 years of age, and visual and clown distraction interventions were effective for needle-related pain and distress management among children. The results showed evidence supporting the effect of distraction interventions for children’s needle-related pain and distress. Through this review, strategies were identified to design better interventions to improve the outcomes. View Full-Text
Keywords: child; distraction intervention; distress; meta-analysis; needle-related pain; systematic review child; distraction intervention; distress; meta-analysis; needle-related pain; systematic review
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MDPI and ACS Style

Cho, M.-K.; Choi, M.-Y. Effect of Distraction Intervention for Needle-Related Pain and Distress in Children: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 9159. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18179159

AMA Style

Cho M-K, Choi M-Y. Effect of Distraction Intervention for Needle-Related Pain and Distress in Children: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(17):9159. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18179159

Chicago/Turabian Style

Cho, Mi-Kyoung, and Mi-Young Choi. 2021. "Effect of Distraction Intervention for Needle-Related Pain and Distress in Children: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 17: 9159. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18179159

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