Next Article in Journal
A Training Intervention through a 360° Multisource Feedback Model
Next Article in Special Issue
Gender Bias and the Lack of Equity in Pandemic Nursing in China: A Qualitative Study
Previous Article in Journal
ACTN3 Genotypes and Their Relationship with Muscle Mass and Function of Kosovan Adults
Previous Article in Special Issue
Stress and Coping Strategies among Nursing Students in Clinical Practice during COVID-19
Article

Analyzing the Impact of COVID-19 Trauma on Developing Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder among Emergency Medical Workers in Spain

1
Emergencies Management (SACYL), 40002 Segovia, Spain
2
Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing, University of Valladolid, 47005 Valladolid, Spain
3
Nursing Care Research (GICE), Faculty of Nursing, University of Valladolid, 47005 Valladolid, Spain
4
Health Transportation Group, 40195 Segovia, Spain
5
Primary Care Management Valladolid West (SACYL), 47012 Valladolid, Spain
6
University Clinical Hospital of Valladolid, 47003 Valladolid, Spain
7
Instituto de Biología y Genética Molecular (IBGM), Universidad de Valladolid-CSIC, 47005 Valladolid, Spain
8
Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Castilla-La Mancha, 45600 Talavera de la Reina, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Mrs. Carmen M. Martínez-Caballero and Dra. Rosa M. Cárdaba-García have contributed as IP in the research.
Academic Editors: Richard Gray, Sonia Udod and Marcello Covino
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(17), 9132; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18179132
Received: 6 July 2021 / Revised: 24 August 2021 / Accepted: 26 August 2021 / Published: 30 August 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nursing and COVID-19)
The early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic presented the characteristics of a traumatic event that could trigger post-traumatic stress disorder. Emergency Medical Services workers are already a high-risk group due to their professional development. The research project aimed to analyse the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on EMS professionals in terms of their mental health. For this purpose, we present a descriptive crosssectional study with survey methodology. A total of 317 EMS workers (doctors, nurses, and emergency medical technicians) were recruited voluntarily. Psychological distress, post-traumatic stress disorder, and insomnia were assessed. The instruments were the General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12), the Davidson Trauma Scale (DTS-8), and the Athens Insomnia Scale (AIS-8). We found that 36% of respondents had psychological distress, 30.9% potentially had PTSD, and 60.9% experienced insomnia. Years of work experience were found to be positively correlated, albeit with low effect, with the PTSD score (r = 0.133). Finally, it can be stated that the COVID-19 pandemic has been a traumatic event for EMS workers. The number of professionals presenting psychological distress, possible PTSD, or insomnia increased dramatically during the early phases of the pandemic. This study highlights the need for mental health disorder prevention programmes for EMS workers in the face of a pandemic. View Full-Text
Keywords: emergency medical services; post-traumatic stress disorder; mental status; sleep disorders; COVID-19 pandemic emergency medical services; post-traumatic stress disorder; mental status; sleep disorders; COVID-19 pandemic
MDPI and ACS Style

Martínez-Caballero, C.M.; Cárdaba-García, R.M.; Varas-Manovel, R.; García-Sanz, L.M.; Martínez-Piedra, J.; Fernández-Carbajo, J.J.; Pérez-Pérez, L.; Madrigal-Fernández, M.A.; Barba-Pérez, M.Á.; Olea, E.; Durantez-Fernández, C.; Herrero-Frutos, M.T. Analyzing the Impact of COVID-19 Trauma on Developing Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder among Emergency Medical Workers in Spain. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 9132. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18179132

AMA Style

Martínez-Caballero CM, Cárdaba-García RM, Varas-Manovel R, García-Sanz LM, Martínez-Piedra J, Fernández-Carbajo JJ, Pérez-Pérez L, Madrigal-Fernández MA, Barba-Pérez MÁ, Olea E, Durantez-Fernández C, Herrero-Frutos MT. Analyzing the Impact of COVID-19 Trauma on Developing Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder among Emergency Medical Workers in Spain. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(17):9132. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18179132

Chicago/Turabian Style

Martínez-Caballero, Carmen M., Rosa M. Cárdaba-García, Rocío Varas-Manovel, Laura M. García-Sanz, Jorge Martínez-Piedra, Juan J. Fernández-Carbajo, Lucía Pérez-Pérez, Miguel A. Madrigal-Fernández, M. Á. Barba-Pérez, Elena Olea, Carlos Durantez-Fernández, and M. T. Herrero-Frutos 2021. "Analyzing the Impact of COVID-19 Trauma on Developing Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder among Emergency Medical Workers in Spain" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 17: 9132. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18179132

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop