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Article

Environmental Factors Affecting Cognitive Function among Community-Dwelling Older Adults: A Longitudinal Study

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Canvas Inc., 366 Satokata, Kisuki-cho, Unnnan-shi 699-1311, Shimane, Japan
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Department of Medical Education and Research, Faculty of Medicine, Shimane University, 89-1 Enya-cho, Izumo-shi 693-8501, Shimane, Japan
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Center for Community-Based Healthcare Research and Education (CoHRE), Organization for Research and Academic Information, Shimane University, 223-8 Enya-cho, Izumo-shi 693-8501, Shimane, Japan
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Center for Primary Health Care Research, Department of Clinical Sciences Malmö, Lund University, Jan Waldenströms gata 35, 20502 Malmö, Sweden
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Department of Psychology, Otemon Gakuin University, 2-1-15 Nishiai, Ibaraki City 567-8502, Osaka, Japan
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Department of Community Health and Gerontological Nursing, Faculty of Medicine, Shimane University, 89-1 Enya-cho, Izumo 693-8501, Shimane, Japan
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Faculty of Human Sciences, Shimane University, 1060 Nishikawatsu-cho, Matsue-shi 690-8504, Shimane, Japan
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Department of Functional Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Shimane University, 89-1 Enya-cho, Izumo-shi 693-8501, Shimane, Japan
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Lilah Besser
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(16), 8528; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18168528
Received: 5 July 2021 / Revised: 10 August 2021 / Accepted: 11 August 2021 / Published: 12 August 2021
Although neighborhood environmental factors have been found to be associated with cognitive decline, few longitudinal studies have focused on their effect on older adults living in rural areas. This longitudinal study aimed to investigate the role of neighborhood environmental factors in cognitive decline among rural older adults. The data of 485 older adults aged ≥60 years who were living in Unnan City in Japan and had participated in two surveys conducted between 2014 and 2018 were analyzed. Cognitive function was assessed using the Cognitive Assessment for Dementia, iPad version 2. Elevation, hilliness, residential density, and proximity to a community center were determined using geographic information system. We applied a generalized estimating equation with odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of cognitive decline in the quartiles of neighborhood environmental factors. A total of 56 (11.6%) participants demonstrated a decrease in cognitive function at follow up. Elevation (adjusted OR 2.58, 95% CI (1.39, 4.77) for Q4 vs. Q1) and hilliness (adjusted OR 1.93, 95% CI (1.03, 3.63) for Q4 vs. Q1) were associated with a higher likelihood of cognitive decline. The second quartiles of residential density showed significantly lower likelihoods of cognitive decline compared with the first quartiles (adjusted OR 0.36, 95% CI (0.19, 0.71) for Q2 vs. Q1). Thus, an elevated hilly environment and residential density predicted cognitive decline among rural older adults. View Full-Text
Keywords: cognitive function; rural mountainous area; older adults cognitive function; rural mountainous area; older adults
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MDPI and ACS Style

Motohiro, A.; Abe, T.; Okuyama, K.; Onoda, K.; Ito, T.; Isomura, M.; Nabika, T.; Kumakura, S. Environmental Factors Affecting Cognitive Function among Community-Dwelling Older Adults: A Longitudinal Study. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 8528. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18168528

AMA Style

Motohiro A, Abe T, Okuyama K, Onoda K, Ito T, Isomura M, Nabika T, Kumakura S. Environmental Factors Affecting Cognitive Function among Community-Dwelling Older Adults: A Longitudinal Study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(16):8528. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18168528

Chicago/Turabian Style

Motohiro, Atsushi, Takafumi Abe, Kenta Okuyama, Keiichi Onoda, Tomoko Ito, Minoru Isomura, Toru Nabika, and Shunichi Kumakura. 2021. "Environmental Factors Affecting Cognitive Function among Community-Dwelling Older Adults: A Longitudinal Study" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 16: 8528. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18168528

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