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Review

Health Inequalities in Children and Adolescents: A Scoping Review of the Mediating and Moderating Effects of Family Characteristics

1
Department of Epidemiology and Health Monitoring, Robert Koch-Institute, 13353 Berlin, Germany
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Department of Public Health, Brandenburg University of Technology Cottbus-Senftenberg, 01968 Senftenberg, Germany
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Mannheim Institute of Public Health, Social and Preventive Medicine, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, 68167 Mannheim, Germany
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Institute of Medical Sociology, Medical Faculty, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, 06112 Halle, Germany
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Institute of Medical Sociology, Centre for Health and Society, Medical Faculty, Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf, 40225 Düsseldorf, Germany
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Health Economics, Technical University of Munich, 80992 München, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jitse P. van Dijk
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(15), 7739; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18157739
Received: 31 May 2021 / Revised: 9 July 2021 / Accepted: 15 July 2021 / Published: 21 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Review Papers in Children’s Health)
This scoping review systematically mapped evidence of the mediating and moderating effects of family characteristics on health inequalities in school-aged children and adolescents (6–18 years) in countries with developed economies in Europe and North America. We conducted a systematic scoping review following the PRISMA extension for Scoping Reviews recommendations. We searched the PubMed, PsycINFO and Scopus databases. Two reviewers independently screened titles, abstracts and full texts. Evidence was synthesized narratively. Of the 12,403 records initially identified, 50 articles were included in the synthesis. The included studies were conducted in the United States (n = 27), Europe (n = 18), Canada (n = 3), or in multiple countries combined (n = 2). We found that mental health was the most frequently assessed health outcome. The included studies reported that different family characteristics mediated or moderated health inequalities. Parental mental health, parenting practices, and parent-child-relationships were most frequently examined, and were found to be important mediating or moderating factors. In addition, family conflict and distress were relevant family characteristics. Future research should integrate additional health outcomes besides mental health, and attempt to integrate the complexity of families. The family characteristics identified in this review represent potential starting points for reducing health inequalities in childhood and adolescence. View Full-Text
Keywords: health inequalities; socioeconomic position; health; health behavior; moderation; mediation; school-age parenting; parent-child relationship; family conflict health inequalities; socioeconomic position; health; health behavior; moderation; mediation; school-age parenting; parent-child relationship; family conflict
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MDPI and ACS Style

Blume, M.; Rattay, P.; Hoffmann, S.; Spallek, J.; Sander, L.; Herr, R.; Richter, M.; Moor, I.; Dragano, N.; Pischke, C.; Iashchenko, I.; Hövener, C.; Wachtler, B. Health Inequalities in Children and Adolescents: A Scoping Review of the Mediating and Moderating Effects of Family Characteristics. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 7739. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18157739

AMA Style

Blume M, Rattay P, Hoffmann S, Spallek J, Sander L, Herr R, Richter M, Moor I, Dragano N, Pischke C, Iashchenko I, Hövener C, Wachtler B. Health Inequalities in Children and Adolescents: A Scoping Review of the Mediating and Moderating Effects of Family Characteristics. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(15):7739. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18157739

Chicago/Turabian Style

Blume, Miriam, Petra Rattay, Stephanie Hoffmann, Jacob Spallek, Lydia Sander, Raphael Herr, Matthias Richter, Irene Moor, Nico Dragano, Claudia Pischke, Iryna Iashchenko, Claudia Hövener, and Benjamin Wachtler. 2021. "Health Inequalities in Children and Adolescents: A Scoping Review of the Mediating and Moderating Effects of Family Characteristics" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 15: 7739. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18157739

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