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Review

Modelling Exposure by Spraying Activities—Status and Future Needs

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Fraunhofer Institute for Toxicology and Experimental Medicine ITEM, Nikolai-Fuchs-Straße 1, 30625 Hannover, Germany
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Federal Institute for Occupational Safety and Health BAuA, Friedrich-Henkel-Weg 1-25, 44149 Dortmund, Germany
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National Institute for Public Health and the Environment RIVM, PB 1, 3720 Bilthoven, The Netherlands
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Federal Institute for Risk Assessment BfR, Max-Dohrn-Straße 8–10, 10589 Berlin, Germany
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Domenico M. Cavallo, Francesca Borghi and Andrea Spinazzè
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(15), 7737; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18157737
Received: 30 April 2021 / Revised: 30 June 2021 / Accepted: 1 July 2021 / Published: 21 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling Tools for Occupational Exposure Assessment)
Spray applications enable a uniform distribution of substances on surfaces in a highly efficient manner, and thus can be found at workplaces as well as in consumer environments. A systematic literature review on modelling exposure by spraying activities has been conducted and status and further needs have been discussed with experts at a symposium. This review summarizes the current knowledge about models and their level of conservatism and accuracy. We found that extraction of relevant information on model performance for spraying from published studies and interpretation of model accuracy proved to be challenging, as the studies often accounted for only a small part of potential spray applications. To achieve a better quality of exposure estimates in the future, more systematic evaluation of models is beneficial, taking into account a representative variety of spray equipment and application patterns. Model predictions could be improved by more accurate consideration of variation in spray equipment. Inter-model harmonization with regard to spray input parameters and appropriate grouping of spray exposure situations is recommended. From a user perspective, a platform or database with information on different spraying equipment and techniques and agreed standard parameters for specific spraying scenarios from different regulations may be useful. View Full-Text
Keywords: spraying; exposure models; occupational exposure; consumer exposure; evaluation; regulatory chemistry spraying; exposure models; occupational exposure; consumer exposure; evaluation; regulatory chemistry
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hahn, S.; Meyer, J.; Roitzsch, M.; Delmaar, C.; Koch, W.; Schwarz, J.; Heiland, A.; Schendel, T.; Jung, C.; Schlüter, U. Modelling Exposure by Spraying Activities—Status and Future Needs. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 7737. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18157737

AMA Style

Hahn S, Meyer J, Roitzsch M, Delmaar C, Koch W, Schwarz J, Heiland A, Schendel T, Jung C, Schlüter U. Modelling Exposure by Spraying Activities—Status and Future Needs. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(15):7737. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18157737

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hahn, Stefan, Jessica Meyer, Michael Roitzsch, Christiaan Delmaar, Wolfgang Koch, Janine Schwarz, Astrid Heiland, Thomas Schendel, Christian Jung, and Urs Schlüter. 2021. "Modelling Exposure by Spraying Activities—Status and Future Needs" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 15: 7737. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18157737

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