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Article

The Cumulative Risk of Prenatal Exposures to Chemical and Non-Chemical Stressors on Birth Outcomes in Suriname

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Scientific Research Center Suriname, Academic Hospital Paramaribo, Paramaribo, Suriname
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Faculty of Medical Sciences, Anton de Kom University of Suriname, Paramaribo, Suriname
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Department of Biostatistics and Data Science, School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA
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Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA
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Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA
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Foundation for Perinatal Interventions and Research in Suriname (Perisur), Paramaribo, Suriname
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School of Public Health, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA
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Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(14), 7683; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18147683
Received: 21 June 2021 / Revised: 16 July 2021 / Accepted: 18 July 2021 / Published: 20 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Health)
The cumulative exposure to chemical and non-chemical stressors may have an impact on birth outcomes. The aim of this study is to examine the cumulative exposure of a mixture of chemicals (mercury, lead, selenium and tin) and non-chemical stressors (social support, perceived stress, probable depression and BMI) on birth outcomes (birthweight, gestational age at birth, and Apgar score at 5 min). The study population is a subset (n = 384) of the Caribbean Consortium for Research in Environmental and Occupational Health–MeKiTamara prospective cohort study. Associations between the latent chemical construct, non-chemical stressors and birth outcomes were assessed using path models. The results showed a significant direct relationship between perceived stress and birthweight (β = −0.17), however even though the relationship between perceived stress and depression was significant in all three path models (β = 0.61), the association between depression and birth outcomes was not significant. Perceived stress was significantly associated with community engagement (β = −0.12) and individual resilience (β = −0.12). BMI (β = 0.12) was also significantly directly associated with birthweight. The latent chemical construct did not show an association with the birth outcomes. Our data indicate the need for the development of a support system for pregnant women by involving them in prenatal care programs to reduce maternal stress, which may also influence depression and (in)directly improve the birth outcomes. Interventions regarding weight management for women of childbearing age are necessary to halt obesity and its negative effects on birth outcomes. View Full-Text
Keywords: chemical stressors; non-chemical stressors; birth outcomes; cumulative exposure; path model; Suriname; CCREOH–MeKiTamara study chemical stressors; non-chemical stressors; birth outcomes; cumulative exposure; path model; Suriname; CCREOH–MeKiTamara study
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MDPI and ACS Style

Gokoel, A.R.; Shankar, A.; Abdoel Wahid, F.; Hindori-Mohangoo, A.D.; Covert, H.H.; Wickliffe, J.K.; Harville, E.W.; Zijlmans, W.C.W.R.; Lichtveld, M.Y. The Cumulative Risk of Prenatal Exposures to Chemical and Non-Chemical Stressors on Birth Outcomes in Suriname. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 7683. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18147683

AMA Style

Gokoel AR, Shankar A, Abdoel Wahid F, Hindori-Mohangoo AD, Covert HH, Wickliffe JK, Harville EW, Zijlmans WCWR, Lichtveld MY. The Cumulative Risk of Prenatal Exposures to Chemical and Non-Chemical Stressors on Birth Outcomes in Suriname. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(14):7683. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18147683

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gokoel, Anisma R., Arti Shankar, Firoz Abdoel Wahid, Ashna D. Hindori-Mohangoo, Hannah H. Covert, Jeffrey K. Wickliffe, Emily W. Harville, Wilco C. W. R. Zijlmans, and Maureen Y. Lichtveld. 2021. "The Cumulative Risk of Prenatal Exposures to Chemical and Non-Chemical Stressors on Birth Outcomes in Suriname" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 14: 7683. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18147683

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