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Article

Recurrent Home Flooding in Detroit, MI 2012–2020: Results of a Household Survey

1
Social Environment and Health Program, Survey Research Center, Institute for Social Research, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
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Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
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Center for Urban Studies, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48202, USA
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Department of Health and Human Services, University of Michigan-Dearborn, 19000 Hubbard Drive, Fairlane Center South, Dearborn, MI 48126, USA
5
Healthy Urban Waters, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48202, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Miklas Scholz
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(14), 7659; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18147659
Received: 11 May 2021 / Revised: 21 June 2021 / Accepted: 24 June 2021 / Published: 19 July 2021
Household flooding has wide ranging social, economic and public health impacts particularly for people in resource poor communities. The determinants and public health outcomes of recurrent home flooding in urban contexts, however, are not well understood. A household survey was used to assess neighborhood and household level determinants of recurrent home flooding in Detroit, MI. Survey activities were conducted from 2012 to 2020. Researchers collected information on past flooding, housing conditions and public health outcomes. Using the locations of homes, a “hot spot” analysis of flooding was performed to find areas of high and low risk. Survey data were linked to environmental and neighborhood data and associations were tested using regression methods. 4803 households participated in the survey. Flooding information was available for 3842 homes. Among these, 2085 (54.26%) reported experiencing pluvial flooding. Rental occupied units were more likely to report flooding than owner occupied homes (Odd ratio (OR) 1.72 [95% Confidence interval (CI) 1.49, 1.98]). Housing conditions such as poor roof quality and cracks in basement walls influenced home flooding risk. Homes located in census tracts with increased percentages of owner occupied units (vs. rentals) had a lower odds of flooding (OR 0.92 [95% (CI) 0.86, 0.98]). Household factors were found the be more predictive of flooding than neighborhood factors in both univariate and multivariate analyses. Flooding and housing conditions associated with home flooding were associated with asthma cases. Recurrent home flooding is far more prevalent than previously thought. Programs that support recovery and which focus on home improvement to prevent flooding, particularly by landlords, might benefit the public health. These results draw awareness and urgency to problems of urban flooding and public health in other areas of the country confronting the compounding challenges of aging infrastructure, disinvestment and climate change. View Full-Text
Keywords: flooding; Detroit; environmental justice; climate change flooding; Detroit; environmental justice; climate change
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MDPI and ACS Style

Larson, P.S.; Gronlund, C.; Thompson, L.; Sampson, N.; Washington, R.; Steis Thorsby, J.; Lyon, N.; Miller, C. Recurrent Home Flooding in Detroit, MI 2012–2020: Results of a Household Survey. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 7659. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18147659

AMA Style

Larson PS, Gronlund C, Thompson L, Sampson N, Washington R, Steis Thorsby J, Lyon N, Miller C. Recurrent Home Flooding in Detroit, MI 2012–2020: Results of a Household Survey. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(14):7659. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18147659

Chicago/Turabian Style

Larson, Peter S., Carina Gronlund, Lyke Thompson, Natalie Sampson, Ramona Washington, Jamie Steis Thorsby, Natalie Lyon, and Carol Miller. 2021. "Recurrent Home Flooding in Detroit, MI 2012–2020: Results of a Household Survey" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 14: 7659. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18147659

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