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Article

Environmental Air Pollutants Inhaled during Pregnancy Are Associated with Altered Cord Blood Immune Cell Profiles

1
Priority Research Centre GrowUpWell®, Hunter Medical Research Institute, The University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW 2308, Australia
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School of Public Health, University of Memphis, Memphis, TN 38152, USA
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Priority Research Centre for Healthy Lungs, Hunter Medical Research Institute, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW 2308, Australia
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Sleep Medicine Department, John Hunter Hospital, Newcastle, NSW 2305, Australia
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Centre for Inflammation, Centenary Institute and University of Technology Sydney, School of Life Sciences, Faculty of Science, Sydney, NSW 2007, Australia
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Department of Immunology and Pathology, Central Clinical School, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC 3800, Australia
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Paediatric Respiratory & Sleep Medicine Department, John Hunter Children’s Hospital, Newcastle, NSW 2305, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(14), 7431; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18147431
Received: 24 May 2021 / Revised: 2 July 2021 / Accepted: 7 July 2021 / Published: 12 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Children's Health)
Air pollution exposure during pregnancy may be a risk factor for altered immune maturation in the offspring. We investigated the association between ambient air pollutants during pregnancy and cell populations in cord blood from babies born to mothers with asthma enrolled in the Breathing for Life Trial. For each patient (n = 91), daily mean ambient air pollutant levels were extracted during their entire pregnancy for sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, ozone, particulate matter <10 μm (PM10) or <2.5 μm (PM2.5), humidity, and temperature. Ninety-one cord blood samples were collected, stained, and assessed using fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Principal Component (PC) analyses of both air pollutants and cell types with linear regression were employed to define associations. Considering risk factors and correlations between PCs, only one PC from air pollutants and two from cell types were statistically significant. PCs from air pollutants were characterized by higher PM2.5 and lower SO2 levels. PCs from cell types were characterized by high numbers of CD8 T cells, low numbers of CD4 T cells, and by high numbers of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) and low numbers of myeloid DCs (mDCs). PM2.5 levels during pregnancy were significantly associated with high numbers of pDCs (p = 0.006), and SO2 with high numbers of CD8 T cells (p = 0.002) and low numbers of CD4 T cells (p = 0.011) and mDCs (p = 4.43 × 10−6) in cord blood. These data suggest that ambient SO2 and PM2.5 exposure are associated with shifts in cord blood cell types that are known to play significant roles in inflammatory respiratory disease in childhood. View Full-Text
Keywords: air pollutants; cord blood; asthma; prenatal risk factors; particulate matter air pollutants; cord blood; asthma; prenatal risk factors; particulate matter
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MDPI and ACS Style

Martins Costa Gomes, G.; Karmaus, W.; Murphy, V.E.; Gibson, P.G.; Percival, E.; Hansbro, P.M.; Starkey, M.R.; Mattes, J.; Collison, A.M. Environmental Air Pollutants Inhaled during Pregnancy Are Associated with Altered Cord Blood Immune Cell Profiles. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 7431. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18147431

AMA Style

Martins Costa Gomes G, Karmaus W, Murphy VE, Gibson PG, Percival E, Hansbro PM, Starkey MR, Mattes J, Collison AM. Environmental Air Pollutants Inhaled during Pregnancy Are Associated with Altered Cord Blood Immune Cell Profiles. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(14):7431. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18147431

Chicago/Turabian Style

Martins Costa Gomes, Gabriela, Wilfried Karmaus, Vanessa E. Murphy, Peter G. Gibson, Elizabeth Percival, Philip M. Hansbro, Malcolm R. Starkey, Joerg Mattes, and Adam M. Collison 2021. "Environmental Air Pollutants Inhaled during Pregnancy Are Associated with Altered Cord Blood Immune Cell Profiles" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 14: 7431. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18147431

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