Next Article in Journal
Lack of Zika Virus and Other Recognized Flaviviruses among the Mosquito Vectors during and Post the Hajj Mass Gathering
Previous Article in Journal
Lifestyle Interventions to Improve Glycemic Control in Adults with Type 2 Diabetes Living in Low-and-Middle Income Countries: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs)
Article

Long-Term Exposure to PM2.5, Facemask Mandates, Stay Home Orders and COVID-19 Incidence in the United States

1
Department of Epidemiology, Fielding School of Public Health, University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA), Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
2
Department of Epidemiology and Environmental Health, School of Public Health and Health Professions, University at Buffalo, The State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14214, USA
3
Department of Environmental Health Science, University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA), Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
4
Institute of the Environment and Sustainability, University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA), Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
5
Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA), Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
6
WORLD Policy Analysis Center, University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA), Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
7
Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA), Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
8
Center for Human Nutrition, Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA), Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: David Carpenter and Paul B. Tchounwou
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(12), 6274; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18126274
Received: 10 April 2021 / Revised: 28 May 2021 / Accepted: 5 June 2021 / Published: 10 June 2021
Long-term PM2.5 exposure might predispose populations to SARS-CoV-2 infection and intervention policies might interrupt SARS-CoV-2 transmission and reduce the risk of COVID-19. We conducted an ecologic study across the United States, using county-level COVID-19 incidence up to 12 September 2020, to represent the first two surges in the U.S., annual average of PM2.5 between 2000 and 2016 and state-level facemask mandates and stay home orders. We fit negative binomial models to assess COVID-19 incidence in association with PM2.5 and policies. Stratified analyses by facemask policy and stay home policy were also performed. Each 1-µg/m3 increase in annual average concentration of PM2.5 exposure was associated with 7.56% (95% CI: 3.76%, 11.49%) increase in COVID-19 risk. Facemask mandates and stay home policies were inversely associated with COVID-19 with adjusted RRs of 0.8466 (95% CI: 0.7598, 0.9432) and 0.9193 (95% CI: 0.8021, 1.0537), respectively. The associations between PM2.5 and COVID-19 were consistent among counties with or without preventive policies. Our study added evidence that long-term PM2.5 exposure increased the risk of COVID-19 during each surge and cumulatively as of 12 September 2020, in the United States. Although both state-level implementation of facemask mandates and stay home orders were effective in preventing the spread of COVID-19, no clear effect modification was observed regarding long-term exposure to PM2.5 on the risk of COVID-19. View Full-Text
Keywords: particulate matter; COVID-19; facemasks; stay-home orders; nation-wide study particulate matter; COVID-19; facemasks; stay-home orders; nation-wide study
MDPI and ACS Style

Fang, F.; Mu, L.; Zhu, Y.; Rao, J.; Heymann, J.; Zhang, Z.-F. Long-Term Exposure to PM2.5, Facemask Mandates, Stay Home Orders and COVID-19 Incidence in the United States. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 6274. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18126274

AMA Style

Fang F, Mu L, Zhu Y, Rao J, Heymann J, Zhang Z-F. Long-Term Exposure to PM2.5, Facemask Mandates, Stay Home Orders and COVID-19 Incidence in the United States. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(12):6274. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18126274

Chicago/Turabian Style

Fang, Fang, Lina Mu, Yifang Zhu, Jianyu Rao, Jody Heymann, and Zuo-Feng Zhang. 2021. "Long-Term Exposure to PM2.5, Facemask Mandates, Stay Home Orders and COVID-19 Incidence in the United States" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 12: 6274. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18126274

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop