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Systematic Review

Proposal for the Inclusion of Tobacco Use in Suicide Risk Scales: Results of a Meta-Analysis

1
TXP Research Group, Universidad Cardenal Herrera-CEU, CEU Universities, 12006 Castellón, Spain
2
Department of Mental Health, Consorcio Hospitalario Provincial de Castellón, 12002 Castellón, Spain
3
Torrente Mental Health Unit, Hospital General de Valencia, 46900 Torrente, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(11), 6103; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18116103
Received: 5 May 2021 / Revised: 21 May 2021 / Accepted: 4 June 2021 / Published: 5 June 2021
There is an association between smoking and suicide, even though the direction and nature of this relationship remains controversial. This meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the association between smoking and suicidal behaviours (ideation, planning, suicide attempts, and death by suicide). On 24 August 2020, we searched the PubMed, Cochrane library, Scopus, Web of Science, TRIP, and SCIENCE DIRECT databases for relevant articles on this topic. Twenty prospective cohort studies involving 2,457,864 participants were included in this meta-analysis. Compared with never smokers, former and current smokers had an increased risk of death by suicide (relative risk [RR] = 1.31; 95% CI [1.13, 1.52] and RR = 2.41; 95% CI [2.08, 2.80], respectively), ideation (RR = 1.35; 95% CI [1.31, 1.39] and RR = 1.84; 95% CI [1.21, 2.78]), and attempted suicide (RR = 1.27; 95% CI [0.56, 2.87] and RR = 1.71; 95% CI [0.73, 3.97]). Moreover, compared to never smokers, current smoker women (RR = 2.51; 95% CI [2.06–3.04] had an increased risk of taking their own life (Q = 13,591.53; p < 0.001) than current smoker men (RR = 2.06; 95% CI [1.62–2.62]. Furthermore, smoking exposure (former and current smokers) was associated with a 1.74-fold increased risk (95% CI [1.54, 1.96]) of suicidal behaviour (death by suicide, ideation, planning, or attempts). Thus, because of the prospective relationship between smoking and suicidal behaviours, smoking should be included in suicide risk scales as a useful and easy item to evaluate suicide risk. View Full-Text
Keywords: suicide; suicidal behaviours; smoking; tobacco; nicotine; prospective; meta-analysis suicide; suicidal behaviours; smoking; tobacco; nicotine; prospective; meta-analysis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Echeverria, I.; Cotaina, M.; Jovani, A.; Mora, R.; Haro, G.; Benito, A. Proposal for the Inclusion of Tobacco Use in Suicide Risk Scales: Results of a Meta-Analysis. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 6103. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18116103

AMA Style

Echeverria I, Cotaina M, Jovani A, Mora R, Haro G, Benito A. Proposal for the Inclusion of Tobacco Use in Suicide Risk Scales: Results of a Meta-Analysis. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(11):6103. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18116103

Chicago/Turabian Style

Echeverria, Iván, Miriam Cotaina, Antonio Jovani, Rafael Mora, Gonzalo Haro, and Ana Benito. 2021. "Proposal for the Inclusion of Tobacco Use in Suicide Risk Scales: Results of a Meta-Analysis" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 11: 6103. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18116103

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