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Article

Rodent-Related Zoonotic Pathogens at the Human–Animal–Environment Interface in Qatar: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

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Department of Animal Resources, Ministry of Municipality and Environment, Doha P.O. Box 35081, Qatar
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School of Laboratory Medicine and Medical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, University of KwaZulu Natal, Durban 4000, South Africa
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Ministry of Public Health, Doha P.O. Box 42, Qatar
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Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Urmia University, Urmia 5756151818, Iran
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Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Chattogram Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Chattogram 4225, Bangladesh
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Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Research Centre for Emerging and Reemerging Infectious Diseases, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran 1316943551, Iran
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National Reference Laboratory for Plague, Tularemia and Q Fever, Research Centre for Emerging and Reemerging Infectious Diseases, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Akanlu, Kabudar Ahang, Hamadan 6556153145, Iran
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Department of Virology, Central Laboratory, The Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research, Khartum 7099, Sudan
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College of Animal Production, Bahri University, Khartoum 11111, Sudan
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School of Life Sciences, College of Agriculture, Engineering & Science, University of KwaZulu Natal, Durban 4000, South Africa
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South African Medical Research Council, Cape Town 7505, South Africa
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Kow-Tong Chen
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(11), 5928; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18115928
Received: 13 March 2021 / Revised: 6 May 2021 / Accepted: 27 May 2021 / Published: 31 May 2021
Rodents are one of the most diversified terrestrial mammals, and they perform several beneficial activities in nature. These animals are also important as carriers of many pathogens with public health importance. The current systematic review was conducted to formulate a true depiction of rodent-related zoonoses in Qatar. Following systematic searches on PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct, and Web of Science and a screening process, a total of 94 published articles were selected and studied. The studied articles reported 23 rodent-related zoonotic pathogens that include nine bacterial, eleven parasitic, and three viral pathogens, from which the frequently reported pathogens were Mycobacterium tuberculosis (32 reports), Escherichia coli (23), and Salmonella spp. (16). The possible pathway of entry of the rodent-borne pathogens can be the land port, seaports, and airport of Qatar through carrier humans and animals, contaminated food, and agricultural products. The pathogens can be conserved internally by rodents, pets, and livestock; by agricultural production systems; and by food marketing chains. The overall estimated pooled prevalence of the pathogens among the human population was 4.27% (95%CI: 4.03–4.51%; p < 0.001) with significant heterogeneity (I2 = 99.50%). The top three highest prevalent pathogens were M.tuberculosis (30.90%; 22.75–39.04%; p < 0.001; I2 = 99.70%) followed by Toxoplasma gondii (21.93%; 6.23–37.61%; p < 0.001; I2 = 99.30%) and hepatitis E virus (18.29%; 11.72–24.86%; p < 0.001; I2 = 96.70%). However, there is a knowledge gap about the listed pathogens regarding the occurrence, transmission pathways, and rodent role in transmission dynamics at the human–animal–environment interface in Qatar. Further studies are required to explore the role of rodents in spreading zoonotic pathogens through the One Health framework, consisting of zoologists, ecologists, microbiologists, entomologists, veterinarians, and public health experts in this country. View Full-Text
Keywords: pathogens; rodents; public health; environment; meta-analysis; One Health; Qatar pathogens; rodents; public health; environment; meta-analysis; One Health; Qatar
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MDPI and ACS Style

Islam, M.M.; Farag, E.; Mahmoudi, A.; Hassan, M.M.; Mostafavi, E.; Enan, K.A.; Al-Romaihi, H.; Atta, M.; El Hussein, A.R.M.; Mkhize-Kwitshana, Z. Rodent-Related Zoonotic Pathogens at the Human–Animal–Environment Interface in Qatar: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 5928. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18115928

AMA Style

Islam MM, Farag E, Mahmoudi A, Hassan MM, Mostafavi E, Enan KA, Al-Romaihi H, Atta M, El Hussein ARM, Mkhize-Kwitshana Z. Rodent-Related Zoonotic Pathogens at the Human–Animal–Environment Interface in Qatar: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(11):5928. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18115928

Chicago/Turabian Style

Islam, Md M., Elmoubashar Farag, Ahmad Mahmoudi, Mohammad M. Hassan, Ehsan Mostafavi, Khalid A. Enan, Hamad Al-Romaihi, Muzzamil Atta, Abdel R.M. El Hussein, and Zilungile Mkhize-Kwitshana. 2021. "Rodent-Related Zoonotic Pathogens at the Human–Animal–Environment Interface in Qatar: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 11: 5928. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18115928

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