Next Article in Journal
Provision of Psychotherapy One Year after the Beginning of the COVID-19 Pandemic in Austria
Next Article in Special Issue
Confinement Situation of the Spanish Population during the Health Crisis of COVID-19: Resilience Mediation Process in the Relationship of Dispositional Optimism and Psychological Well-Being
Previous Article in Journal
Characteristics of Technical and Tactical Preparation of Elite Judokas during the World Championships and Olympic Games
Previous Article in Special Issue
Portuguese Nurses’ Stress, Anxiety, and Depression Reduction Strategies during the COVID-19 Outbreak
Article

Impact of Changed Use of Greenspace during COVID-19 Pandemic on Depression and Anxiety

1
School of the Environment, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511, USA
2
Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511, USA
3
Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, School of Public Health, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06510, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Javier Alvarez-Galvez, Diego Gomez-Baya and Carolina Lagares-Franco
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(11), 5842; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18115842
Received: 13 May 2021 / Revised: 28 May 2021 / Accepted: 28 May 2021 / Published: 29 May 2021
The COVID-19 pandemic has had devastating consequences for health, social, and economic domains, but what has received far less focus is the effect on people’s relationship to vital ecological supports, including access to greenspace. We assessed patterns of greenspace use in relation to individual and environmental factors and their relationship with experiencing psychological symptoms under the pandemic. We conducted an online survey recruiting participants from social media for adults in Korea for September–December 2020. The survey collected data on demographics, patterns of using greenspace during the pandemic, and major depression (MD) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) symptoms. The Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and the Generalized Anxiety Disorder 2-item (GAD-2) were applied to identify probable cases of MD and GAD. A logistic regression model assessed the association decreased visits to greenspace after the outbreak compared to 2019 and probable MD and GAD. Among the 322 survey participants, prevalence of probable MD and GAD were 19.3% and 14.9%, respectively. High rates of probable MD (23.3%) and GAD (19.4%) were found among persons currently having job-related and financial issues. Of the total participants, 64.9% reported decreased visits to greenspace after the COVID-19 outbreak. Persons with decreased visits to greenspace had 2.06 higher odds (95% CI: 0.91, 4.67, significant at p < 0.10) of probable MD at the time of the survey than persons whose visits to greenspace increased or did not change. Decreased visits to greenspace were not significantly associated with GAD (OR = 1.45, 95% CI: 0.63, 3.34). Findings suggest that barriers to greenspace use could deprive people of mental health benefits and affect mental health during pandemic; an alternative explanation is that those experiencing poor mental health may be less likely to visit greenspaces during pandemic. This implies the need of adequate interventions on greenspace uses under an outbreak especially focusing on how low-income populations may be more adversely affected by a pandemic and its policy responses. View Full-Text
Keywords: greenspace; mental health; Coronavirus; SARS-CoV-2; social determinants of mental health; intervention; pandemic; South Korea greenspace; mental health; Coronavirus; SARS-CoV-2; social determinants of mental health; intervention; pandemic; South Korea
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Heo, S.; Desai, M.U.; Lowe, S.R.; Bell, M.L. Impact of Changed Use of Greenspace during COVID-19 Pandemic on Depression and Anxiety. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 5842. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18115842

AMA Style

Heo S, Desai MU, Lowe SR, Bell ML. Impact of Changed Use of Greenspace during COVID-19 Pandemic on Depression and Anxiety. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(11):5842. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18115842

Chicago/Turabian Style

Heo, Seulkee, Miraj U. Desai, Sarah R. Lowe, and Michelle L. Bell 2021. "Impact of Changed Use of Greenspace during COVID-19 Pandemic on Depression and Anxiety" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 11: 5842. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18115842

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop