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Article

Differential Seasonality of Legionnaires’ Disease by Exposure Category

Department for Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Robert Koch Institute, Seestraße 10, 13353 Berlin, Germany
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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(9), 3049; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17093049
Received: 27 March 2020 / Revised: 20 April 2020 / Accepted: 23 April 2020 / Published: 28 April 2020
Legionnaires’ disease (LD) shows a seasonal pattern with most cases occurring in summer. We investigate if seasonality can be observed for all three exposure categories (community-acquired (CALD), travel-associated (TALD) and healthcare-associated (HCA)). Methods: LD cases (2005–2015) were classified by exposure categories and we calculated the relative case ratio for each month from February to December using January as reference. The TALD relative case ratio was compared with flight frequencies. Results: Overall case numbers in Germany (N = 7351) peaked in August. CALD had a curve similar to all cases. TALD displayed a bimodal curve with peaks in June/July and October. The latter was attributable to LD cases aged 60+. The relative case ratio of TALD surpassed clearly that of CALD. The curve was similar to that of the relative flight frequencies, but was shifted by about one month. HCA showed no apparent seasonality. Conclusions: Although the overall seasonality in LD is heavily influenced by CALD, seasonal differences are more pronounced for TALD which may reflect travel behavior. The bimodal pattern of TALD is attributable to the curve among those aged 60+ and may reflect their preference to travel outside school holiday periods. Heightened vigilance for HCA cases is necessary throughout the entire year. View Full-Text
Keywords: Legionnaires’ disease; surveillance; seasonality Legionnaires’ disease; surveillance; seasonality
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MDPI and ACS Style

Buchholz, U.; Altmann, D.; Brodhun, B. Differential Seasonality of Legionnaires’ Disease by Exposure Category. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 3049. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17093049

AMA Style

Buchholz U, Altmann D, Brodhun B. Differential Seasonality of Legionnaires’ Disease by Exposure Category. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(9):3049. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17093049

Chicago/Turabian Style

Buchholz, Udo, Doris Altmann, and Bonita Brodhun. 2020. "Differential Seasonality of Legionnaires’ Disease by Exposure Category" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17, no. 9: 3049. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17093049

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