Methodological Analysis of the Effect of an Anti-Bullying Programme in Secondary Education through Communicative Competence: A Pre-Test–Post-Test Study with a Control-Experimental Group
1.1. Importance of Promoting Communication Competence to Improve School Coexistence
1.2. Gender and Bullying Prevalence: How They Relate
1.3. Studies Related to Anti-bullying Programmes and Programmes to Promote Communicative Competence
- There will not be differences regarding the scores of students during pre-test stage between both groups, as well as according to gender.
- There will not be differences in the level of conflict of the students between the pre-test and post-test scores in the experimental group after applying the ICCC programme.
- There will not be differences about communication skills of students between the pre-test and post-test scores in the experimental group after applying the ICCC programme.
- There will not be differences regarding the level of conflict of the students between the control and experimental groups’ scores after applying the ICCC programme.
- There will not be differences about communication skills of students between the control and experimental groups’ scores after applying the ICCC programme.
- There will not be differences regarding the level of conflict of the student with respect to gender in the pre-test and post-test design in the experimental group.
- There will not be differences about communication skills of students regarding gender in the pre-test and post-test design in the experimental group.
2.3. Research Ethics
2.4. Instrument Description
2.5. Procedure and Programme Description
- It is a programme designed with a teaching structure that takes into account different basic competences of the Spanish curriculum defined by the LOMCE (Spanish Organic Law 8/2013, of 9th December, for the improvement of educational quality). The skills to be developed are the following ones: competence in linguistic communication; social and civic competences; and competencies in learning to learn.
- The programme will be based on different basic aspects: Teaching values (tolerance, equality, respect, and empathy) and attention given the diversity of the students.
- Three coherently articulated blocks are developed in the program: (1) school coexistence, (2) development of coexistence, (3) coexistence and communication. The tasks performed in each block are described below.
- It follows a constructivist model, because it fosters meaningful and autonomous learning for students.
- Task 1: creation of norms and values by groups, where each will be responsible for defending those that are not upheld in the classroom, encouraging positive perceptions in the students who do not comply with them.
- Task 2: analysis of and reflection on journalistic news concerning the school environment. Through discussion groups, students will note the highlights of the news and share possible solutions to problems orally.
- Task 3: in pairs, students will write down the qualities of their partner on a piece of paper, and then comment orally in a large group. In this way, all students will be able to see they share similar interests, thus increasing the tolerance for the diversity of opinions.
- Task 1: with short videos of television programmes, the students must use their ability to listen and manifest in groups the mistakes they could identify, in order to collect on a poster board the most significant elements that they must respect in a dialogue with another person.
- Task 2: the teacher will present a conflict situation, either one that has taken place in class or a hypothetical one. In small groups, the students will perform a dramatisation of the conflict; the teacher will assign a role to each member of the group, which they will have to interpret. It is recommended that the situation and characters be provided in written form. Students are allowed a few minutes to learn about the situation and the characters. At the end of the dramatisation, an oral debate is held to reflect on how they felt in the role given. Ideally, each role rotates between each member of each group.
- Task 1: through the different conflicts that arise in the classroom, in small groups the students must reason orally and in writing about what is right. In a large group, the best solution is discussed and agreed by consensus.
- Task 2: anonymously, each student writes down a conflict that has occurred in or out of the classroom. In a large group, they will reflect on it in order to enhance the empathy of the students and enable them to put themselves in the place of others. To do this, the teacher will ask the following questions: How did they feel when their opinion did not coincide with the rest of the classmates? Has there been respect between the different opinions? Have they empathised with their classmates? Has someone changed their point of view after listening to other people?
2.6. Data Analysis
- First, an exploratory descriptive analysis was carried out for each of the dimensions of the instrument in the experimental group, taking into account the time before and time after applying the ICCC programme.
- Second, to rule out possible differences between the groups prior to the start of the ICCCC program, pretest scores were analyzed using an ANOVA test with one group factor (experimental and control) and another gender factor (male or female). For this, the IBM SPSS V.22 (Armonk, NY, USA) software was used. Although there was no normality in the data through the Shapiro-Wilks test to perform this test, we proceeded with this since, in most of the subcategories of the variables studied, the Komogorov-Smirnov test was not violated. Furthermore, the assumption of homocedasticity of the variances was fulfilled.
- Third, to verify the effectiveness of the ICCC programme, different statistical tests were used to compare the pre-test group versus the post-test group; and the control group versus the experimental group. In addition, the non- of the assumptions that allow this type of analysis was studied. Specifically, in the pre-test and post-test the Wilcoxon test was used when comparing the scores of related samples. Between the control and experimental groups, the Mann-Whitney test was used when comparing independent samples.
- Finally, a differential analysis regarding gender is carried out, with the purpose of knowing if there are differences in the scores of the students in the experimental group, both in the pre-test and in the post-test. Regarding gender, different tests were used depending on whether there was normality in the data.
3.1. Descriptive Analysis in the Experimental Group (before and after Applying the Programme)
3.2. Analysis of Group Matching
3.3. Analysis between the Pre-Test and Post-Test of the Experimental Group
3.4. Analy sis between the Control and Experimental Group once the Programme Has Been Applied
3.5. Analysis Regarding the Influence of Gender
6. Conclusions and Further Works
Conflicts of Interest
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|Questionaries’ collection||Dichotomous nominal|
|Between 0 and 10 points||Low aggression|
|Between 10 and 20 points||Medium aggression|
|Between 30 and 44 points||High aggression|
|- Would you be able to intimidate a partner? (4 points)||1.73 ± 0.96||1.69 ± 0.93|
|- How often have you bullied a partner? (4 points)||1.38 ± 0.70||1.34 ± 0.55|
|- How do you feel when a partner laughs at you? (6 points)||1.83 ± 1.47||1.58 ± 1.03|
|- When do you mess with a partner? What do the other colleagues do? (4 points)||1.62 ± 1.05||1.50 ± 0.91|
|- How often have you put or called someone for their nickname? (6 points)||3.23 ± 1.80||2.90 ± 0.98|
|- What do you usually do when one partner intimidates another? (5 points)||2.46 ± 1.27||2.28 ± 1.07|
|- Write and analyse texts about feelings, desires, perceptions regarding bullying or teasing at school; do you think this would help to diminish or solve them? (5 points)||3.71 ± 1.01||2.57 ± 0.92|
|- Talk and listen to your classmates about bullying or teasing at school; do you think it would help to reduce or solve them? (5 points)||3.96 ± 0.79||2.96 ± 1.32|
|- Do readings about bullying or teasing at school and analyse them together in class; do you think this would help to reduce or solve them? (5 points)||4.00 ± 1.15||2.46 ± 0.96|
|Dimension 1 |
|Dimension 2 |
|Dimension 1 |
|Dimension 2 |
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González-Alonso, F.; Guillén-Gámez, F.D.; de Castro-Hernández, R.M. Methodological Analysis of the Effect of an Anti-Bullying Programme in Secondary Education through Communicative Competence: A Pre-Test–Post-Test Study with a Control-Experimental Group. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 3047. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17093047
González-Alonso F, Guillén-Gámez FD, de Castro-Hernández RM. Methodological Analysis of the Effect of an Anti-Bullying Programme in Secondary Education through Communicative Competence: A Pre-Test–Post-Test Study with a Control-Experimental Group. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(9):3047. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17093047Chicago/Turabian Style
González-Alonso, Fernando, Francisco D. Guillén-Gámez, and Rosa Mᵃ de Castro-Hernández. 2020. "Methodological Analysis of the Effect of an Anti-Bullying Programme in Secondary Education through Communicative Competence: A Pre-Test–Post-Test Study with a Control-Experimental Group" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17, no. 9: 3047. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17093047