Information Is Selection—A Review of Basics Shows Substantial Potential for Improvement of Digital Information Representation
2. Definition of Information
3. Global Definition of Information
3.1. Literature Research
3.2. Format of the Domain Vector (DV)
- The UL has a similar function to a link (i.e., a URL resp. “Uniform Resource Locator”) , but allows for maximal efficiency. It is a number sequence and typically has a hierarchical structure with a predefined meaning, where the first number represents the count of the subsequent numbers of the UL and the second number points to a global table of conventional internet addresses of online presences, where users can define DVs online in a standardized way. Subsequent numbers in the UL can provide detailed addresses within the chosen online presence;
- Numbers in the UL are self-elongating positive integers, starting with a half byte or byte, as shown in Figure 4 of ;
- The number sequence after the UL is completely defined in the online definition of the online address given by the UL. This is also a metric (i.e., a distance function; see Section 4.4) for a similarity comparison of DVs when the UL is provided and the online definition is expandable. Necessary explanations and definitions are, at least, given in English, but should be language-independent, such that translation into other languages (i.e., multilingual definitions) is possible;
- Nesting and a posteriori combinations of DVs are possible and often efficient (e.g., date, time, and location, along with a sequence of measurement results);
- The binary format of the DV can be converted into a text-compatible form using, for example, the Base64 Data Encoding specification (RFC 4648) . After this, it can be integrated into currently recommended approaches (e.g., into the FHIR resp. “Fast Health Interoperability Resources" standard ) as an extension .
4. Comparison of Information
4.1. Domain of Information: “Language Vocabulary”
4.2. Translation of Original Information into Digital Representation using the Domain “Language Vocabulary”
4.3. Domain of Information: Adapted to the Topic
- Which (additional) independent feature (parameter) is relevant within the chosen topic? If an appropriate quantification of this feature is available online, reuse it; otherwise, ask:
- Which variants of the feature are possible? Quantify the feature, order its variants, and define a bijection to the numeric values of a parameter with the corresponding order.
4.4. Comparability of Information
- F(DV1, DV2) ≥ 0,
- F(DV1, DV2) = 0 if and only if DV1 = DV2,
- F(DV1, DV2) + F(DV2, DV3) ≥ F(DV1, DV3), and
- F(DV1, DV2) = F(DV2, DV1).
4.5. Domains of Information in Databases
5. Search of Information
5.1. Text Search of Information
5.2. Search of Information in Databases
5.3. Search of Information in General
5.4. Similarity Search of Information
5.5. User-Defined Global Similarity Search of Information
- Ask for relevant features within the chosen topic;
- Quantify them, reusing already existing online definitions.
5.6. Medical Example
6.1. Comparison with Current Approaches
6.2. User Defined Similarity Search of Medical Information
6.3. Urgent Questions in Information Science and Informatics
- Why has the exact definition of information as a selection from an ordered set (or domain) (1)not been consequently emphasized and technically utilized from the beginning? This is far-reaching, as adapted domains can be defined online for all possible applications (Figure 3). If it is unclear how to define an ordered set (i.e., domain) and the numbers that select from this set, advanced training (e.g., study of the medical example in Section 5.6) is necessary—information experts (by definition) need to know about this. A “language vocabulary” is only one example of a domain. Semantic concepts and other a posteriori combinations of information are derived applications and also need a basis.
- Why can users not (especially professionals, experts, and specialists) define adapted domains (Section 4.3) online for precise language-independent global communication in their areas of expertise?
- Digital information consists of number sequences. Why have these, up to now, been defined in variable and complex ways by context? Why have globally defined, identified, and searchable information carriers (such as the domain vectors detailed above (2), up to now, not been introduced (as selections from an online defined and adapted domain), decades after the introduction of the internet?
- Why are global information searches still essentially restricted to text searching?
Conflicts of Interest
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|ORGINFO||DIGINFO||F = |DIGINFO-16|||RANK|
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Orthuber, W. Information Is Selection—A Review of Basics Shows Substantial Potential for Improvement of Digital Information Representation. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 2975. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17082975
Orthuber W. Information Is Selection—A Review of Basics Shows Substantial Potential for Improvement of Digital Information Representation. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(8):2975. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17082975Chicago/Turabian Style
Orthuber, Wolfgang. 2020. "Information Is Selection—A Review of Basics Shows Substantial Potential for Improvement of Digital Information Representation" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17, no. 8: 2975. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17082975