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Open AccessEditorial

Airborne Transmission Route of COVID-19: Why 2 Meters/6 Feet of Inter-Personal Distance Could Not Be Enough

Department of Industrial Chemistry, University of Bologna, Viale del Risorgimento 4, 40136 Bologna, Italy
Interdepartmental Centre for Industrial Research “Renewable Sources, Environment, Blue Growth, Energy”, University of Bologna, 47921 Rimini, Italy
Department of Biology, University “Aldo Moro” of Bari, 70121 Bari, Italy
Department of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Trieste, 34127 Trieste, Italy
Environmental Research Division, TCR TECORA, 20094 Milan, Italy
Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste, 34127 Trieste, Italy
UNESCO Chair on Health Education and Sustainable Development, University of Naples Federico II, 80131 Naples, Italy
Italian Society of Environmental Medicine (SIMA), 20149 Milan, Italy
Department of Environmental Sciences and Policy, University of Milan, 20133 Milan, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(8), 2932;
Received: 15 April 2020 / Accepted: 16 April 2020 / Published: 23 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Air Pollution & COVID-19 Outbreak)
The COVID-19 pandemic caused the shutdown of entire nations all over the world. In addition to mobility restrictions of people, the World Health Organization and the Governments have prescribed maintaining an inter-personal distance of 1.5 or 2 m (about 6 feet) from each other in order to minimize the risk of contagion through the droplets that we usually disseminate around us from nose and mouth. However, recently published studies support the hypothesis of virus transmission over a distance of 2 m from an infected person. Researchers have proved the higher aerosol and surface stability of SARS-COV-2 as compared with SARS-COV-1 (with the virus remaining viable and infectious in aerosol for hours) and that airborne transmission of SARS-CoV can occur besides close-distance contacts. Indeed, there is reasonable evidence about the possibility of SARS-COV-2 airborne transmission due to its persistence into aerosol droplets in a viable and infectious form. Based on the available knowledge and epidemiological observations, it is plausible that small particles containing the virus may diffuse in indoor environments covering distances up to 10 m from the emission sources, thus representing a kind of aerosol transmission. On-field studies carried out inside Wuhan Hospitals showed the presence of SARS-COV-2 RNA in air samples collected in the hospitals and also in the surroundings, leading to the conclusion that the airborne route has to be considered an important pathway for viral diffusion. Similar findings are reported in analyses concerning air samples collected at the Nebraska University Hospital. On March 16th, we have released a Position Paper emphasizing the airborne route as a possible additional factor for interpreting the anomalous COVID-19 outbreaks in northern Italy, ranked as one of the most polluted areas in Europe and characterized by high particulate matter (PM) concentrations. The available information on the SARS-COV-2 spreading supports the hypothesis of airborne diffusion of infected droplets from person to person at a distance greater than two meters (6 feet). The inter-personal distance of 2 m can be reasonably considered as an effective protection only if everybody wears face masks in daily life activities. View Full-Text
Keywords: COVID-19; airborne transmission; social distancing; droplets; persistence COVID-19; airborne transmission; social distancing; droplets; persistence
MDPI and ACS Style

Setti, L.; Passarini, F.; De Gennaro, G.; Barbieri, P.; Perrone, M.G.; Borelli, M.; Palmisani, J.; Di Gilio, A.; Piscitelli, P.; Miani, A. Airborne Transmission Route of COVID-19: Why 2 Meters/6 Feet of Inter-Personal Distance Could Not Be Enough. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 2932.

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