Survey Methods of the 2018 International Tobacco Control (ITC) Japan Survey
Department of Statistics and Actuarial Science, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1, Canada
Department of Psychology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1, Canada
Division of Tobacco Policy Research, National Cancer Center Japan, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045, Japan
Japan Cancer Society, 13th Floor, Yurakucho Center Bldg. 2-5-1, Yurakucho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-0006, Japan
School of Public Health and Health Systems, University of Waterloo, 200 University Ave W., Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1, Canada
Ontario Institute for Cancer Research, 661 University Ave Suite 510, Toronto, ON M5G 0A3, Canada
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(7), 2598; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17072598
Received: 13 March 2020 / Revised: 2 April 2020 / Accepted: 7 April 2020 / Published: 10 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Japan: Evaluating the Effectiveness of Tobacco Control Policies and the Use of Heated Tobacco Products)
This paper describes the methods of the Wave 1 (2018) International Tobacco Control (ITC) Japan Survey. The respondents were adults aged 20 years and older in one of four user groups: (1) cigarette-only smokers who smoked at least monthly and used heated tobacco products (HTPs) not at all or less than weekly, (2) HTP-only users who used HTPs at least weekly and smoked cigarettes not at all or less than monthly, (3) cigarette-HTP dual users who smoked at least monthly and used HTPs at least weekly, and (4) non-users who had never smoked or who smoked less than monthly and used HTPs less than weekly. Eligible respondents were recruited by a commercial survey firm from its online panel. Respondents were allocated proportionally to sample strata based on demographic, geographic, and user type specifications benchmarked to a national reference. Survey weights, accounting for smoking/HTP use status, sex, age, education, and geography, were calibrated to benchmarks from a nationally representative survey in Japan. Response rate was 45.1% and cooperation rate was 96.3%. The total sample size was 4615 (3288 cigarette smokers, 164 exclusive HTP users, 549 cigarette-HTP dual users, and 614 non-users). The 2018 ITC Japan Survey sampling design and survey data collection methods will allow analyses to examine prospectively the use of cigarettes and HTPs in Japan and factors associated with the use of both products and of transitions between them.