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Gender Differences in Depressive Symptoms and Work Environment Factors among Dairy Farmers in Japan

1
Faculty of Health Sciences, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0812, Japan
2
Research Faculty of Agriculture, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-8589, Japan
3
Japanese Red Cross College of Nursing, Tokyo 150-0012, Japan
4
College of Bioresource Sciences, Nihon University, Tokyo 252-0880, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(7), 2569; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17072569
Received: 12 March 2020 / Revised: 3 April 2020 / Accepted: 7 April 2020 / Published: 9 April 2020
Dairy farmers are more likely than nonfarmers to experience high demands and are at risk of mental health problems. However, there is scarce evidence on the current state of psychological health and related factors among dairy farmers, and the knowledge of potential gender differences is limited. This study aimed to examine the prevalence of depressive symptoms assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) and its association with work environment characteristics and to identify gender differences. Data were collected from 273 dairy farmer participants (169 males and 104 females) in Japan. Females were more likely to be depressed, and young and middle-aged women appeared to be at risk of depression. For both genders, a demanding work environment was related to depression. There were some gender differences; for example, worries about the harmful effects of pesticides on health and the balancing of family roles and work roles were related to depression in men, while worries about one’s financial situation and the health status of livestock were associated with depression in women. Females benefited from support through direct interaction, while males benefited from involvement in social activities. These findings will contribute to the development of a gender-specific approach to promote psychological health in the dairy farming community. View Full-Text
Keywords: dairy farmers; depressive symptoms; work environment factors; gender differences; Japan dairy farmers; depressive symptoms; work environment factors; gender differences; Japan
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sato, M.; Kato, H.; Noguchi, M.; Ono, H.; Kobayashi, K. Gender Differences in Depressive Symptoms and Work Environment Factors among Dairy Farmers in Japan. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 2569. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17072569

AMA Style

Sato M, Kato H, Noguchi M, Ono H, Kobayashi K. Gender Differences in Depressive Symptoms and Work Environment Factors among Dairy Farmers in Japan. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(7):2569. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17072569

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sato, Miho, Hiromi Kato, Makiko Noguchi, Hiroshi Ono, and Kuniyuki Kobayashi. 2020. "Gender Differences in Depressive Symptoms and Work Environment Factors among Dairy Farmers in Japan" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17, no. 7: 2569. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17072569

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