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Review

New Approach Methods to Evaluate Health Risks of Air Pollutants: Critical Design Considerations for In Vitro Exposure Testing

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MedTec Biolab, Inc., Hillsborough, NC 27278, USA
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Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Gillings School of Global Public Health, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
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Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
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Center for Environmental Medicine, Asthma, and Lung Biology, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
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Curriculum in Toxicology, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
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The Institute for Environmental Health Solutions, Gillings School of Global Public Health, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
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Center for Computational Toxicology and Exposure, Office of Research and Development, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Durham, NC 27709, USA
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Center for Public Health and Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Durham, NC 27709, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(6), 2124; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17062124
Received: 14 February 2020 / Revised: 11 March 2020 / Accepted: 19 March 2020 / Published: 23 March 2020
Air pollution consists of highly variable and complex mixtures recognized as major contributors to morbidity and mortality worldwide. The vast number of chemicals, coupled with limitations surrounding epidemiological and animal studies, has necessitated the development of new approach methods (NAMs) to evaluate air pollution toxicity. These alternative approaches include in vitro (cell-based) models, wherein toxicity of test atmospheres can be evaluated with increased efficiency compared to in vivo studies. In vitro exposure systems have recently been developed with the goal of evaluating air pollutant-induced toxicity; though the specific design parameters implemented in these NAMs-based studies remain in flux. This review aims to outline important design parameters to consider when using in vitro methods to evaluate air pollutant toxicity, with the goal of providing increased accuracy, reproducibility, and effectiveness when incorporating in vitro data into human health evaluations. This review is unique in that experimental considerations and lessons learned are provided, as gathered from first-hand experience developing and testing in vitro models coupled to exposure systems. Reviewed design aspects include cell models, cell exposure conditions, exposure chambers, and toxicity endpoints. Strategies are also discussed to incorporate in vitro findings into the context of in vivo toxicity and overall risk assessment. View Full-Text
Keywords: air pollution; in vitro; inhalation; mixtures; new approach methods; toxicology; risk assessment air pollution; in vitro; inhalation; mixtures; new approach methods; toxicology; risk assessment
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zavala, J.; Freedman, A.N.; Szilagyi, J.T.; Jaspers, I.; Wambaugh, J.F.; Higuchi, M.; Rager, J.E. New Approach Methods to Evaluate Health Risks of Air Pollutants: Critical Design Considerations for In Vitro Exposure Testing. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 2124. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17062124

AMA Style

Zavala J, Freedman AN, Szilagyi JT, Jaspers I, Wambaugh JF, Higuchi M, Rager JE. New Approach Methods to Evaluate Health Risks of Air Pollutants: Critical Design Considerations for In Vitro Exposure Testing. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(6):2124. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17062124

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zavala, Jose, Anastasia N. Freedman, John T. Szilagyi, Ilona Jaspers, John F. Wambaugh, Mark Higuchi, and Julia E. Rager 2020. "New Approach Methods to Evaluate Health Risks of Air Pollutants: Critical Design Considerations for In Vitro Exposure Testing" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17, no. 6: 2124. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17062124

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