Next Article in Journal
APCI Evaluation Method for Cement Concrete Airport Pavements in the Scope of Air Operation Safety and Air Transport Participants Life
Previous Article in Journal
Comment on Małgorzata Krówczyńska and Ewa Wilk. Environmental and Occupational Exposure to Asbestos as a Result of Consumption and Use in Poland. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 2611
Open AccessReview

Application of the Key Characteristics of Carcinogens to Per and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances

1
Environmental Working Group, Washington, DC 20009, USA
2
Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, School of Public Health, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(5), 1668; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17051668
Received: 17 January 2020 / Revised: 11 February 2020 / Accepted: 12 February 2020 / Published: 4 March 2020
Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) constitute a large class of environmentally persistent chemicals used in industrial and consumer products. Human exposure to PFAS is extensive, and PFAS contamination has been reported in drinking water and food supplies as well as in the serum of nearly all people. The most well-studied member of the PFAS class, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), induces tumors in animal bioassays and has been associated with elevated risk of cancer in human populations. GenX, one of the PFOA replacement chemicals, induces tumors in animal bioassays as well. Using the Key Characteristics of Carcinogens framework for cancer hazard identification, we considered the existing epidemiological, toxicological and mechanistic data for 26 different PFAS. We found strong evidence that multiple PFAS induce oxidative stress, are immunosuppressive, and modulate receptor-mediated effects. We also found suggestive evidence indicating that some PFAS can induce epigenetic alterations and influence cell proliferation. Experimental data indicate that PFAS are not genotoxic and generally do not undergo metabolic activation. Data are currently insufficient to assess whether any PFAS promote chronic inflammation, cellular immortalization or alter DNA repair. While more research is needed to address data gaps, evidence exists that several PFAS exhibit one or more of the key characteristics of carcinogens. View Full-Text
Keywords: key characteristics of carcinogens; PFAS; oxidative stress; immunotoxicity; environmental carcinogen key characteristics of carcinogens; PFAS; oxidative stress; immunotoxicity; environmental carcinogen
MDPI and ACS Style

Temkin, A.M.; Hocevar, B.A.; Andrews, D.Q.; Naidenko, O.V.; Kamendulis, L.M. Application of the Key Characteristics of Carcinogens to Per and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 1668.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop