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Brain Breaks® Physical Activity Solutions in the Classroom and on Attitudes toward Physical Activity: A Randomized Controlled Trial among Primary Students from Eight Countries

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Graduate Institute of Educational Information and Measurement, National Taichung University of Education, Taichung City 40306, Taiwan
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Department of Psychology | Assessment Research Centre, The Education University of Hong Kong, 10 Lo Ping Road, Taipo, N.T., Hong Kong
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The Foundation for Global Community Health, Henderson, NV 89012, USA
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Department of Didactics of Physical Activity, Poznan University of Physical Education, Poznan 61-871, Poland
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Faculty of Educational Sciences, Goce Delcev University, Stip 2000, Macedonia
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Human Performance Center, University of Northern Iowa, 105, Cedar Falls, IA 50614, USA
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School of Sport Sciences and Technology, Department of Coaching Education, Nevşehir Hacı Bektaş Veli University, 50300 Nevşehir, Turkey
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Faculty of Kinesiology, University of Zagreb, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
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Physical Activity, Sport and Recreation (PhASRec), Focus Area, School of Human Movement Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, North-West University, Mafikeng 2790, South Africa
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Department of Physical Education and Sport, University of Pitesti, 110040 Pitesti, Romania
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Institute of Health Sciences, Medical Faculty, Vilnius University, LT-10222 Vilnius, Lithuania
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Primary School Ivo Andric, 11090 Belgrade, Serbia
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Department Coaching in Sport, Faculty of Sport, University Union, 11070 Belgrade, Serbia
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Physical Education and Sports Science, National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637616, Singapore
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Department of Exercise Science, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208, USA
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(5), 1666; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17051666
Received: 14 February 2020 / Revised: 28 February 2020 / Accepted: 29 February 2020 / Published: 4 March 2020
Classroom-based physical activity (PA) interventions have received considerable attention due to improvements seen in academic achievement, classroom behaviors, and attitude toward PA. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the Brain Breaks® Physical Activity Solutions in changing children’s attitudes toward PA. Students (N = 3036) aged 8–11 years from schools in Croatia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Poland, Romania, Serbia, South Africa, and Turkey were randomly assigned to either a control or an experimental group. The experimental group received Brain Breaks® videos during classroom sessions throughout the four months of intervention. Student attitudes toward PA were measured using the Attitudes toward Physical Activity Scale (APAS) before and after the intervention. Repeated measures ANOVA indicated a time interaction effect for all APAS variables except fitness. Time-by-group interaction effects with different effect sizes were found for most APAS variables, with the greatest gain effect noted in the experimental group for self-efficacy, followed by learning from the videos concerning PA benefits, exercise importance, and enjoyment from engaging in PA. This study provides evidence supporting Brain Breaks® in terms of learning experience, attitudes towards PA, and personal motivation. Using exercise videos is recommended as an interactive, technology-based PA solution that can be easily integrated into the school setting. View Full-Text
Keywords: physical activity; pediatrics; physical fitness; public health; teaching; youth physical activity; pediatrics; physical fitness; public health; teaching; youth
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mok, M.M.C.; Chin, M.-K.; Korcz, A.; Popeska, B.; Edginton, C.R.; Uzunoz, F.S.; Podnar, H.; Coetzee, D.; Georgescu, L.; Emeljanovas, A.; Pasic, M.; Balasekaran, G.; Anderson, E.; Durstine, J.L. Brain Breaks® Physical Activity Solutions in the Classroom and on Attitudes toward Physical Activity: A Randomized Controlled Trial among Primary Students from Eight Countries. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 1666. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17051666

AMA Style

Mok MMC, Chin M-K, Korcz A, Popeska B, Edginton CR, Uzunoz FS, Podnar H, Coetzee D, Georgescu L, Emeljanovas A, Pasic M, Balasekaran G, Anderson E, Durstine JL. Brain Breaks® Physical Activity Solutions in the Classroom and on Attitudes toward Physical Activity: A Randomized Controlled Trial among Primary Students from Eight Countries. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(5):1666. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17051666

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mok, Magdalena M.C.; Chin, Ming-Kai; Korcz, Agata; Popeska, Biljana; Edginton, Christopher R.; Uzunoz, Fatma S.; Podnar, Hrvoje; Coetzee, Dané; Georgescu, Luminita; Emeljanovas, Arunas; Pasic, Milan; Balasekaran, Govindasamy; Anderson, Elizabeth; Durstine, J. L. 2020. "Brain Breaks® Physical Activity Solutions in the Classroom and on Attitudes toward Physical Activity: A Randomized Controlled Trial among Primary Students from Eight Countries" Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 17, no. 5: 1666. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17051666

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