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Open AccessArticle

The Evidence-Based Development of an Intervention to Improve Clinical Health Literacy Practice

Population Health Sciences Institute, Baddiley Clark Buildig, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE2 4AX, UK
Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Keele University, Staffordshire ST5 5BG, UK
Patient Research Ambassador, (North East and North Cumbria) and Voice Research Advisor, Voice, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 4BF, UK
Community Health and Learning Foundation, currently Reaching People, 15 Wellington Street, Leicester LE1 6HH, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(5), 1513;
Received: 21 December 2019 / Revised: 16 January 2020 / Accepted: 20 January 2020 / Published: 26 February 2020
Low health literacy is an issue with high prevalence in the UK and internationally. It has a social gradient with higher prevalence in lower social groups and is linked with higher rates of long-term health conditions, lower self-rated health, and greater difficulty self-managing long-term health conditions. Improved medical services and practitioner awareness of a patient’s health literacy can help to address these issues. An intervention was developed to improve General Practitioner and Practice Nurse health literacy skills and practice. A feasibility study was undertaken to examine and improve the elements of the intervention. The intervention had two parts: educating primary care doctors and nurses about identifying and enhancing health literacy (patient capacity to get hold of, understand and apply information for health) to improve their health literacy practice, and implementation of on-screen ‘pop-up’ notifications that alerted General Practitioners (GPs) and nurses when seeing a patient at risk of low health literacy. Rapid reviews of the literature were undertaken to optimise the intervention. Four General Practices were recruited, and the intervention was then applied to doctors and nurses through training followed by alerts via the practice clinical IT system. After the intervention, focus groups were held with participating practitioners and a patient and carer group to further develop the intervention. The rapid literature reviews identified (i) key elements for effectiveness of doctors and nurse training including multi-component training, role-play, learner reflection, and identification of barriers to changing practice and (ii) key elements for effectiveness of alerts on clinical computer systems including ‘stand-alone’ notification, automatically generated and prominent display of advice, linkage with practitioner education, and use of notifications within a targeted environment. The findings from the post-hoc focus groups indicated that practitioner awareness and skills had improved as a result of the training and that the clinical alerts reminded them to incorporate this into their clinical practice. Suggested improvements to the training included more information on health literacy and how the clinical alerts were generated, and more practical role playing including initiating discussions on health literacy with patients. It was suggested that the wording of the clinical alert be improved to emphasise its purpose in improving practitioner skills. The feasibility study improved the intervention, increasing its potential usefulness and acceptability in clinical practice. Future studies will explore the impact on clinical care through a pilot and a randomised controlled trial. View Full-Text
Keywords: health literacy; intervention; primary care; feasibility study health literacy; intervention; primary care; feasibility study
MDPI and ACS Style

Rowlands, G.; Tabassum, B.; Campbell, P.; Harvey, S.; Vaittinen, A.; Stobbart, L.; Thomson, R.; Wardle-McLeish, M.; Protheroe, J. The Evidence-Based Development of an Intervention to Improve Clinical Health Literacy Practice. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 1513.

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