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Problem Gambling in the Fitness World—A General Population Web Survey

Faculty of Medicine, Dept of Clinical Health Sciences Malmö, Primary Care, Lund University, S-205 02 Malmö, Sweden
The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, S-114 86 Stockholm, Sweden
School of Human Kinetics, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5, Canada
Swedish Sport Federation, 100 61 Stockholm, Sweden
Pathological Gambling Unit, Dept Psychiatry, Bellvitge University Hospital-IDIBELL, 08907 Barcelona, Spain
Ciber Fisiopatología Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBERObn), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, 28029 Barcelona, Spain
Dept Clin Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Barcelona, 08007 Barcelona, Spain
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(4), 1342;
Received: 20 January 2020 / Revised: 10 February 2020 / Accepted: 13 February 2020 / Published: 19 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Mental Health)
The world of sports has a complex association to problem gambling, and the sparse research examining problem gambling in athletes has suggested an increased prevalence and particularly high male predominance. The present study aimed to study frequency and correlates of problem gambling in populations with moderate to high involvement in fitness or physical exercise. This is a self-selective online survey focusing on addictive behaviors in physical exercise distributed by ‘fitness influencers’ on social media and other online fitness forums to their followers. Respondents were included if they reported exercise at least thrice weekly, were above 15 years of age, and provided informed consent (N = 3088). Problem gambling, measured with the Lie/Bet, was studied in association with demographic data, substance use, and mental health variables. The occurrence of lifetime problem gambling was 8 percent (12 percent in men, one percent in women). In logistic regression, problem gambling was associated with male gender, younger age, risky alcohol drinking, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and less frequent exercise habits. In conclusion, in this self-recruited population with moderate to high fitness involvement, problem gambling was moderately elevated. As shown previously in elite athletes, the male predominance was larger than in the general population. The findings strengthen the link between problem gambling and the world of sports. View Full-Text
Keywords: gambling; sports psychology; behavioral addiction gambling; sports psychology; behavioral addiction
MDPI and ACS Style

Håkansson, A.; Entezarjou, A.; Kenttä, G.; Fernández-Aranda, F.; Jiménez-Murcia, S.; Gunnarsson, B. Problem Gambling in the Fitness World—A General Population Web Survey. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 1342.

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