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Open AccessArticle

Urban Form, Air Quality, and Cardiorespiratory Mortality: A Path Analysis

by Chaosu Li 1, Yan Song 2,3,*, Li Tian 4 and Wei Ouyang 5
Faculty of Innovation and Design, City University of Macau, Macau, China
Department of City Planning, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060, China
Department of City and Regional Planning, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
School of Architecture, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
School of Public Administration, Renmin University of China, Beijing 100872, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(4), 1202;
Received: 5 November 2019 / Revised: 5 February 2020 / Accepted: 6 February 2020 / Published: 13 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Health)
With the unprecedented urbanization during the past three decades, air quality in many Chinese cities has been a serious issue which poses great challenges for urban sustainability. This study examines the health consequences of development patterns in China by establishing the linkage between urban form, air pollution level, and cardiorespiratory mortality rate. We assembled a dataset by compiling a series of variables from multiple sources, including China’s Disease Surveillance Points (DSP) system, which forms a nationally representative sample of mortality for the year 2005, Chinese census, satellite imagery, and the Chinese National Land Use Database. After controlling for local climate, demography, socioeconomics, and other pollution factors, this study finds that urban form elements (e.g., urban density, fragmentation level, forest/green space ratio) have significant influences on PM2.5 (atmospheric particulate matter with a diameter of less than 2.5 micrometers) concentration, thus influencing the incidence of cardiorespiratory mortality at the county level. These results may help explain how the type and pattern of development shape public health by influencing air quality and form an evidence-based land use policy to improve environmental quality and public health. View Full-Text
Keywords: environmental health; PM2.5; urban form; cardiorespiratory mortality; China environmental health; PM2.5; urban form; cardiorespiratory mortality; China
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MDPI and ACS Style

Li, C.; Song, Y.; Tian, L.; Ouyang, W. Urban Form, Air Quality, and Cardiorespiratory Mortality: A Path Analysis. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 1202.

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