- freely available
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(3), 979; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17030979
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Data Source and Sampling Design
2.3. Data Analysis
3.1. Smoking Prevalence and SHS Exposure in Public Places
3.2. Support for Smoke-Free Policies
4.1. Summary of Findings
4.2. Comparison with Other Studies
4.3. Strengths and Limitations
Conflicts of Interest
- GBD 2017 Risk Factor Collaborators. Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 84 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks for 195 countries and territories, 1990–2017: A systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017. Lancet 2018, 392, 1923–1994. [Google Scholar]
- World Health Organization. WHO Report on the Global Tobacco Epidemic, 2009: Implementing Smoke-Free Environments; World Health Organization: Geneva, Switzerland, 2009. [Google Scholar]
- International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). IARC Handbooks of Cancer Prevention in Tobacco Control: Evaluating the Effectiveness of Smoke-free Policies; IARC: Lyon, France, 2009; Volume 13. [Google Scholar]
- World Health Organization. WHO Report on the Global Tobacco Epidemic, 2019; World Health Organization: Geneva, Switzerland, 2019. [Google Scholar]
- Frazer, K.; Callinan, J.E.; McHugh, J.; van Baarsel, S.; Clarke, A.; Doherty, K.; Kelleher, C. Legislative smoking bans for reducing harms from secondhand smoke exposure, smoking prevalence and tobacco consumption. Cochrane Database Syst. Rev. 2016, 2, CD005992. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Assunta, M. Global Tobacco Industry Interference Index 2019; Global Center for Good Governance in Tobacco Control (GGTC): Bangkok, Thailand, 2019. [Google Scholar]
- World Health Organization. WHO Report on the Global Tobacco Epidemic, 2017. Monitoring Tobacco Use and Prevention Policies; World Health Organization: Geneva, Switzerland, 2017. [Google Scholar]
- Katanoda, K.; Jiang, Y.; Park, S.; Lim, M.K.; Qiao, Y.-L.; Inoue, M. Tobacco control challenges in East Asia: Proposals for change in the world’s largest epidemic region. Tob. Control 2014, 23, 359–368. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Iida, K.; Proctor, R.N. ‘The industry must be inconspicuous’: Japan Tobacco’s corruption of science and health policy via the Smoking Research Foundation. Tob. Control 2018, 27, e3–e11. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Bialous, S.A.; Mochizuki-Kobayashi, Y.; Stillman, F. Courtesy and the challenges of implementing smoke-free policies in Japan. Nicotine Tob. Res. 2006, 8, 203–216. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Kashiwabara, M.; Armada, F. Mind your “smoking manners”: The tobacco industry tactics to normalize smoking in Japan. Kobe J. Med. Sci. 2013, 59, 132–140. [Google Scholar]
- Nomura, S.; Sakamoto, H.; Glenn, S.; Tsugawa, Y.; Abe, S.K.; Rahman, M.M.; Brown, J.C.; Ezoe, S.; Fitzmaurice, C.; Inokuchi, T.; et al. Population health and regional variations of disease burden in Japan, 1990–2015: A systematic subnational analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015. Lancet 2017, 390, 1521–1538. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- The Japan Times. Passive smoke kills 15,000 people a year in Japan, study finds. Available online: https://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2016/05/31/national/science-health/passive-smoke-kills-15000-people-annually-japan-health-study-finds/#.XO1TD4hKiUl (accessed on 28 May 2019).
- Ministry of Health Labour and Welfare. Health Promotion Act, Law No. 103; Ministry of Health: Tokyo, Japan, 2003.
- Ministry of Health Labour and Welfare. Guidelines on Passive Smoking Prevention Measures in the Workplace; Ministry of Health: Tokyo, Japan, 2003.
- Tabuchi, T.; Hoshino, T.; Hama, H.; Nakata-Yamada, K.; Ito, Y.; Ioka, A.; Nakayama, T.; Miyashiro, I.; Tsukuma, H. Complete workplace indoor smoking ban and smoking behavior among male workers and female nonsmoking workers’ husbands: A pseudo cohort study of Japanese public workers. Biomed. Res. Int. 2014, 2014, 303917. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Umeda, S. Japan: Smoking Regulations Are Getting Stricter. Available online: https://www.loc.gov/law/foreign-news/article/japan-smoking-regulations-are-getting-stricter/ (accessed on 2 July 2019).
- The Japan Times. Measures against secondhand smoke insufficient. Available online: https://www.japantimes.co.jp/opinion/2018/03/19/editorials/measures-secondhand-smoke-insufficient/#.XO1XwYhKiUm (accessed on 28 May 2019).
- Osaki, T. Japan’s watered-down smoking ban clears Diet. Available online: https://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2018/07/18/national/crime-legal/japans-watered-smoking-ban-clears-diet/#.XRuYzOhKiUl (accessed on 2 July 2019).
- Osaki, T. Tokyo lawmakers approve anti-smoking ordinance as capital gears up for 2020 Olympics. Available online: https://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2018/06/27/national/tokyo-lawmakers-approve-anti-smoking-ordinance-capital-gears-2020-olympics/#.XO1YZ4hKiUl (accessed on 28 May 2019).
- Yumae, S. New rules in Japan take aim at heated tobacco. Available online: https://asia.nikkei.com/Business/Business-trends/New-rules-in-Japan-take-aim-at-heated-tobacco (accessed on 28 May 2019).
- Ministry of Health. Outline of the Act on the Partial Revision of the Health Promotion Act (No. 78 of 2018). Available online: https://www.mhlw.go.jp/english/policy/health-medical/health/dl/201904kenko.pdf (accessed on 8 July 2019).
- Tabuchi, T.; Colwell, B. Disparity and trends in secondhand smoke exposure among Japanese employees, particularly smokers vs. non-smokers. PLoS ONE 2016, 11, e0152096. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Tabuchi, T.; Hoshino, T.; Nakayama, T. Are partial workplace smoking bans as effective as complete smoking bans? A national population-based study of smoke-free policy among Japanese employees. Nicotine Tob. Res. 2016, 18, 1265–1273. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Sutanto, E.; Smith, D.M.; Miller, C.; O’Connor, R.J.; Hyland, A.; Tabuchi, T.; Quah, A.C.K.; Cummings, K.M.; Xu, S.; Fong, G.T.; et al. Use of heated tobacco products within indoor spaces: Findings from the 2018 ITC Japan Survey. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 4862. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Sansone, G.; Fong, G.T.; Yan, M.; Meng, G.; Craig, L.; Xu, S.S.; Quah, A.C.K.; Wu, C.; Feng, G.; Jiang, Y. Secondhand smoke exposure and support for smoke-free policies in cities and rural areas of China from 2009 to 2015: A population-based cohort study (the ITC China Survey). BMJ Open 2019, 9, e031891. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- ITC Project and Tobacco Control Office; China CDC. ITC China Project Report. Findings from the Wave 1 to 5 Surveys (2006–2015); University of Waterloo: Waterloo, ON, Canada; Tobacco Control Office, Chinese Center for Disease Conrol and Prevention: Beijing, China, 2017. [Google Scholar]
- Fong, G.T.; Hyland, A.; Borland, R.; Hammond, D.; Hastings, G.; McNeill, A.; Anderson, S.; Cummings, K.M.; Allwright, S.; Mulcahy, M.; et al. Reductions in tobacco smoke pollution and increases in support for smoke-free public places following the implementation of comprehensive smoke-free workplace legislation in the Republic of Ireland: Findings from the ITC Ireland/UK Survey. Tob. Control 2006, 15, iii51–iii58. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Fong, G.T.; Craig, L.V.; Guignard, R.; Nagelhout, G.E.; Tait, M.K.; Driezen, P.; Kennedy, R.D.; Boudreau, C.; Wilquin, J.-L.; Deutsch, A.; et al. Evaluating the effectiveness of France’s indoor smoke-free law 1 year and 5 years after implementation: Findings from the ITC France Survey. PLoS ONE 2013, 8, e66692. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- European Commission. Special Eurobarometer Report 429: Attitudes of Europeans Towards Tobacco and Electronic Cigarettes; Directorate-General for Communication: Brussels, Belgium, 2015. [Google Scholar]
- Mons, U.; Nagelhout, G.E.; Guignard, R.; McNeill, A.; van den Putte, B.; Willemsen, M.C.; Brenner, H.; Pötschke-Langer, M.; Breitling, L.P. Comprehensive smoke-free policies attract more support from smokers in Europe than partial policies. Eur. J. Public Health 2012, 22 (Suppl. 1), 10–16. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Hyland, A.; Higbee, C.; Borland, R.; Travers, M.; Hastings, G.; Fong, G.T.; Cummings, K.M. Attitudes and beliefs about secondhand smoke and smoke-free policies in four countries: Findings from the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey. Nicotine Tob. Res. 2009, 11, 642–649. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Thrasher, J.F.; Pérez-Hernández, R.; Swayampakala, K.; Arillo-Santillán, E.; Bottai, M. Policy support, norms, and secondhand smoke exposure before and after implementation of a comprehensive smoke-free law in Mexico City. Am. J. Public Health 2010, 100, 1789–1798. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- World Health Organization Western Pacific Region; ITC Project. Smoke-Free Policies in China, Evidence of Effectiveness and Implications for Action, October 2015; World Health Organization Regional Office for the Western Pacific: Manila, Philippines, 2015. [Google Scholar]
- Fong, G.T.; Sansone, G.; Yan, M.; Craig, L.; Quah, A.C.K.; Jiang, Y. Evaluation of smoke-free policies in seven cities in China, 2007–2012. Tob. Control 2015, 24, iv14–iv20. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Yu, G. It is very necessary to build a civilized smoking environment. Available online: http://www.tobaccochina.com/shidian/zaixianshidian/201812/20181217174257_777988.shtml (accessed on 14 January 2019).
- STMA issued this guideline: Building a civilized smoking environment and helping to build a beautiful China. Available online: http://www.etmoc.com/gedi/Newslist?Id=104161 (accessed on 14 January 2019).
- Conference of the Parties to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. DECISION FCTC/COP8(22) Novel and Emerging Tobacco Products. Available online: https://www.who.int/fctc/cop/sessions/cop8/FCTC_COP8(22).pdf (accessed on 15 August 2019).
|Cigarette smokers||Smokes cigarettes at least monthly and uses HTPs less than weekly or not at all||3306||70.6%|
|HTP users||Uses HTPs at least weekly and smokes cigarettes less than monthly or not at all||207||4.4%|
|Dual users||Smokes cigarettes at least monthly AND uses HTPs at least weekly||555||11.8%|
|Non-users||Smokes cigarettes less than monthly or not at all AND uses HTPs less than weekly or not at all||616||13.2%|
© 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).