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Article

Comparison of the Relative Abuse Liability of Electronic Cigarette Aerosol Extracts and Nicotine Alone in Adolescent Rats: A Behavioral Economic Analysis

1
Department of Medicine, Hennepin Healthcare Research Institute, Minneapolis, MN 55415, USA
2
Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
3
Department of Psychology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
4
Department of Health Behavior, Roswell Park Comprehensive Cancer Center, Buffalo, NY 14203, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(3), 860; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17030860
Received: 29 November 2019 / Revised: 29 January 2020 / Accepted: 29 January 2020 / Published: 30 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electronic Cigarettes: Good and Bad Impacts)
Background: Characterizing the determinants of the abuse liability of electronic cigarettes (ECs) in adolescents is needed to inform product regulation by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA). We recently reported that Vuse Menthol EC aerosol extract containing nicotine and a range of non-nicotine constituents (e.g., menthol, propylene glycol) had reduced aversive effects compared to nicotine alone in adolescent rats, whereas Aroma E-Juice EC aerosol extract did not. The current study used a behavioral economic approach to compare the relative abuse liability of these EC extracts and nicotine alone in an i.v. self-administration (SA) model in adolescents. Methods: Adolescents were tested for the SA of EC extracts prepared using an ethanol (ETOH) solvent or nicotine and saline, with and without 4% ETOH (i.e., the same concentration in the EC extracts) in 23 h/day sessions. Results. Although acquisition of SA was faster for nicotine + ETOH compared to all other formulations, the elasticity of demand for all nicotine-containing formulations was similar. Conclusions: EC aerosol extracts did not have greater abuse liability than nicotine alone in adolescents. These data suggest that nicotine may be the primary determinant of the abuse liability of these ECs in youth, at least in terms of the primary reinforcing effects of ECs mediated within the central nervous system. View Full-Text
Keywords: electronic cigarettes; nicotine; abuse liability; behavioral economics; drug self-administration; rats electronic cigarettes; nicotine; abuse liability; behavioral economics; drug self-administration; rats
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MDPI and ACS Style

Harris, A.C.; Smethells, J.R.; Palumbo, M.; Goniewicz, M.; LeSage, M.G. Comparison of the Relative Abuse Liability of Electronic Cigarette Aerosol Extracts and Nicotine Alone in Adolescent Rats: A Behavioral Economic Analysis. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 860. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17030860

AMA Style

Harris AC, Smethells JR, Palumbo M, Goniewicz M, LeSage MG. Comparison of the Relative Abuse Liability of Electronic Cigarette Aerosol Extracts and Nicotine Alone in Adolescent Rats: A Behavioral Economic Analysis. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(3):860. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17030860

Chicago/Turabian Style

Harris, Andrew C., John R. Smethells, Mary Palumbo, Maciej Goniewicz, and Mark G. LeSage 2020. "Comparison of the Relative Abuse Liability of Electronic Cigarette Aerosol Extracts and Nicotine Alone in Adolescent Rats: A Behavioral Economic Analysis" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17, no. 3: 860. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17030860

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