Recruiting and Engaging American Indian and Alaska Native Teens and Young Adults in a SMS Help-Seeking Intervention: Lessons Learned from the BRAVE Study
1.1. mHealth Access in Indian Country
1.2. Efficacy of Technology-Based Interventions
1.3. Goal of this Study
1.4. Research Partners
2. Materials and Methods
2.2. Communication Theory
2.3. Behavioral Intervention
2.3.1. BRAVE Campaign Messages
2.3.2. BRAVE Role Model Videos
2.3.3. STEM Campaign Messages
2.4. Eligibility Criteria
We R Native is doing a study to evaluate a text messaging program and we think you might be eligible. Earn up to $40 for your time. It takes courage to change or to step up and help a friend. Reply BRAVE if you’re interested.
We R Native: Thanks for your interest in our study, but you must be AI/AN and 15–25 years old to participate. If you would like to receive text messages about science, engineering, technology, or medicine, reply with “STEM.” Or check out our other health resources at www.weRnative.org
2.5. Study Recruitment
Super! If you participate, you will receive either: 8 weeks of wellness messages designed to promote cultural pride and resilience, or 8 weeks of STEM messages designed to elevate Native voices in science, technology, engineering, and math.
Afterward, the two groups will switch and you’ll receive the other set of messages. Altogether, you’ll get 3–5 health msgs per week for 4 months. Earn $10 for answering four sets of Q’s over 8 months. More info about study is available at: http://lil.ms/1v5w
You may leave the study at any time by texting STOP. We will send you a pre-survey when the study begins.
2.7. Brave Study Ad Design and Placement
2.8. Social Media Ads, Examples, Conversion Rates and Costs
3.1. SMS Message Analytics
3.1.1. Study Retention
3.1.2. Message Engagement
Video links requiring user engagement: Hey it’s Alex. I didn’t see it at the time, but Chris was my everything. The pow to my wow. The fry to my bread. The first real love of my life besides bball, and I f***ed it all up: Episode 2 (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9aRxIQd_62E&feature=youtu.be)
Text MORE engagement: Alex’s drinking was out of control. Drinking in moderation is defined as having no more than 1 drink per day for women and no more than 2 drinks per day for men. Drinking too much can cause lots of negative outcomes. Text MORE to learn more.
Additional MORE message: Regular excessive alcohol use is associated with hangovers, reduced sexual performance, aggressive behavior, accidents and injury, anxiety and depression, relationship difficulties, and suicide... just to name a few. Drinking in moderation (or not drinking at all) is the best way to keep in control.
Skill practice engagement: Many of us have grown up in traumatic environments. Now it’s up to us to break the cycle. Having people in our lives who love and care about us is one way to build resilience. Week 2 Challenge: Reach out to a friend or family member this week. Let them know you appreciate them and their support.
3.1.3. Message Engagement with a Call to Action
4.1. Principal Findings
Conflicts of Interest
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|BRAVE Arm Messages—Week 2||STEM Arm Messages—Week 2|
Hi! I’m Alex. I’ve been through a lot this year—parties, girl drama, rez life. To really get to know me, you should see where I grew up. Watch this video to learn more about me: Alex—Episode 1 (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pPBI8oUXZ8Q)
Follow-up Text: As you can see, my dad taught me everything I know—the good and the bad. My dad’s drinking, the arguments that would follow… I thought those things were normal.
[Emojis—OK, Sunglasses, Pointing Left; $ signs Face] Cool? Wanna make some $? The Bureau of Labor predicts a 27% growth in IT jobs by 2024... Web development and computer science are ideal jobs in rural (and urban) communities. People who can do the work are highly sought after and well paid, and you can often work remotely. You can even use coding skills to help preserve Native languages: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pPBI8oUXZ8Q
Follow-up Text: We’re descended from scientists, inventors, and innovators. Imagine bridging the digital divide in native communities!? Learn tech to continue our traditions.
|FB Post: “We Need Your Help! We R Native is recruiting…”||12,982|
|FB Post: “🤳 Text BRAVE to 97779”||12,766|
|Instagram Post: An Auntie’s hug and laugh…||114,713|
|Instagram Post: Are you a Native teen or young…||124,492|
|Instagram Post: How can we help our friends who…||68,876|
|Platform/Ad Type||Text Example||Impressions||Link Clicks||Conversion Rate (%)||Ad Costs (US$)||Cost per Link Click (US$)|
|Instagram Link Clicks||I am building a better world for…||550,880||353,150||0.64||$2606||$2.69|
|Facebook Post Link Clicks||We Need Your Help! We R Native is recruiting…||25,748||12,020||0.46||$119||$0.65|
|Facebook Post Engagement||I am building a better world for our people…||188,550||111,081||0.58||$1906||$0.12|
|Facebook ThruPlay||Abuse isn’t always physical. Abuse can come in…||152,047||91,511||0.60||$510||$0.05|
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Stephens, D.; Peterson, R.; Singer, M.; Johnson, J.; Rushing, S.C.; Kelley, A. Recruiting and Engaging American Indian and Alaska Native Teens and Young Adults in a SMS Help-Seeking Intervention: Lessons Learned from the BRAVE Study. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 9437. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17249437
Stephens D, Peterson R, Singer M, Johnson J, Rushing SC, Kelley A. Recruiting and Engaging American Indian and Alaska Native Teens and Young Adults in a SMS Help-Seeking Intervention: Lessons Learned from the BRAVE Study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(24):9437. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17249437Chicago/Turabian Style
Stephens, David, Roger Peterson, Michelle Singer, Jacqueline Johnson, Stephanie Craig Rushing, and Allyson Kelley. 2020. "Recruiting and Engaging American Indian and Alaska Native Teens and Young Adults in a SMS Help-Seeking Intervention: Lessons Learned from the BRAVE Study" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17, no. 24: 9437. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17249437