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Article

Diagnosis and Treatment of Depression in Spain: Are There Gender Inequalities?

1
Department of Sociology and Social Work, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), 48940 Leioa, Spain
2
Doctorate Program in Public Health, Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), 48940 Leioa, Spain
3
Social Determinants of Health and Demographic Change—Opik Research Group, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), 48940 Leioa, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(24), 9232; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17249232
Received: 30 October 2020 / Revised: 2 December 2020 / Accepted: 8 December 2020 / Published: 10 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gender Inequalities in Health and Social Determinants)
It is well known that women are more likely than men to be diagnosed with depression and to consume antidepressants. The factors related to the medicalisation of depression and their social distribution remain unclear. The aim of this study was to analyse gender inequalities in the medicalisation of depression from an intersectional perspective. This was a cross-sectional study based on data from the European Health Survey relating to Spain. Gender inequalities were calculated using prevalence ratios of women compared to men with a diagnosis of depression and antidepressant use, adjusted for age, depressive symptoms, primary care visits and diagnosis of depression in the case of antidepressant use. After adjustments, the diagnosis of depression and the use of antidepressants were more prevalent in women, especially of lower socioeconomic levels. Gender inequalities in the diagnosis of depression also increased with decreasing level of education. Regarding the use of antidepressants, gender inequalities were not significant in university graduates and people of higher social. The gender inequalities found in the diagnosis and treatment of depression cannot be completely attributed to a higher level of depressive symptoms in women or their greater frequency of visits to primary care. Inequalities are greater in more vulnerable social groups. View Full-Text
Keywords: mental health; depression; gender inequalities; medicalisation mental health; depression; gender inequalities; medicalisation
MDPI and ACS Style

Cabezas-Rodríguez, A.; Bacigalupe, A.; Martín, U. Diagnosis and Treatment of Depression in Spain: Are There Gender Inequalities? Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 9232. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17249232

AMA Style

Cabezas-Rodríguez A, Bacigalupe A, Martín U. Diagnosis and Treatment of Depression in Spain: Are There Gender Inequalities? International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(24):9232. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17249232

Chicago/Turabian Style

Cabezas-Rodríguez, Andrea, Amaia Bacigalupe, and Unai Martín. 2020. "Diagnosis and Treatment of Depression in Spain: Are There Gender Inequalities?" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17, no. 24: 9232. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17249232

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