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Open AccessArticle

Minding the Gatekeepers: Referral and Recruitment of Postpartum Mothers with Depression into a Randomized Controlled Trial of a Mobile Internet Parenting Intervention to Improve Mood and Optimize Infant Social Communication Outcomes

1
Mark Chaffin Center for Healthy Development, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303, USA
2
Oregon Research Institute, Eugene, OR 97403, USA
3
Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH 45229, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(23), 8978; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17238978
Received: 16 November 2020 / Accepted: 28 November 2020 / Published: 2 December 2020
Mothers in the United States (U.S.) who are of non-dominant culture and socioeconomically disadvantaged experience depression during postpartum at a rate 3 to 4 times higher than mothers in the general population, but these mothers are least likely to receive services for improving mood. Little research has focused on recruiting these mothers into clinical intervention trials. The purpose of this article is to report on a study that provided a unique context within which to view the differential success of three referral approaches (i.e., community agency staff referral, research staff referral, and maternal self-referral). It also enabled a preliminary examination of whether the different strategies yielded samples that differed with regard to risk factors for adverse maternal and child outcomes. The examination took place within a clinical trial of a mobile intervention for improving maternal mood and increasing parent practices that promote infant social communication development. The sample was recruited within the urban core of a large southern city in the U.S. and was comprised primarily of mothers of non-dominant culture, who were experiencing severe socioeconomic disadvantage. Results showed that mothers self-referred at more than 3.5 times the rate that they were referred by either community agency staff or research staff. Moreover, compared to women referred by research staff, women who self-referred and those who were referred by community gatekeepers were as likely to eventually consent to study participation and initiate the intervention. Results are discussed with regard to implications for optimizing referral into clinical intervention trials. View Full-Text
Keywords: maternal depression; referral; recruitment; mobile intervention; clinical trials maternal depression; referral; recruitment; mobile intervention; clinical trials
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MDPI and ACS Style

Baggett, K.M.; Davis, B.; Sheeber, L.B.; Ammerman, R.T.; Mosley, E.A.; Miller, K.; Feil, E.G. Minding the Gatekeepers: Referral and Recruitment of Postpartum Mothers with Depression into a Randomized Controlled Trial of a Mobile Internet Parenting Intervention to Improve Mood and Optimize Infant Social Communication Outcomes. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 8978. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17238978

AMA Style

Baggett KM, Davis B, Sheeber LB, Ammerman RT, Mosley EA, Miller K, Feil EG. Minding the Gatekeepers: Referral and Recruitment of Postpartum Mothers with Depression into a Randomized Controlled Trial of a Mobile Internet Parenting Intervention to Improve Mood and Optimize Infant Social Communication Outcomes. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(23):8978. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17238978

Chicago/Turabian Style

Baggett, Kathleen M.; Davis, Betsy; Sheeber, Lisa B.; Ammerman, Robert T.; Mosley, Elizabeth A.; Miller, Katy; Feil, Edward G. 2020. "Minding the Gatekeepers: Referral and Recruitment of Postpartum Mothers with Depression into a Randomized Controlled Trial of a Mobile Internet Parenting Intervention to Improve Mood and Optimize Infant Social Communication Outcomes" Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 17, no. 23: 8978. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17238978

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