Resilience and Anti-Stress during COVID-19 Isolation in Spain: An Analysis through Audiovisual Spots
1.1. Stress during Isolation by COVID-19
1.2. Resilience during COVID-19 Isolation
1.3. Media Consumption and Advertising during Confinement by COVID-19 in Spain
- RQ1. Have the brands changed their function for supporting the dynamics of the consumer society to a social function of support in containing COVID-19 and managing the state of mental and psychological health of their audiences during confinement?
- RQ2. Have companies and their brands incorporated, through the audiovisual narrative of their advertising, positive messages in favour of individual and collective resilience in Spain?
- RQ3. Have companies and their brands incorporated messages that could serve as coping strategies against the psychosocial stress produced by the pandemic?
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Measures and Instruments
2.3. Data Collection
2.4. Validity and Reliability
- The content analysis was carried out with all the advertising spots broadcasted by companies in the targeted period;
- There was a representative sample of commercials from different sectors. Therefore, the study does not impose any sample frame bias, regarding a certain advertising style or kind of resource;
- The application of statistical analysis added value and increased the robustness of the results.
- Dissuasive messages, such as “stay at home”, focused on the key measures for contention of the disease. This message was built in the line of promoting protection of the self and the collective under the environment of pandemic stress, as seen in studies such as that of Roberts and Veil .
- Messages to overcome fears and to foster hopes, such as “everything will be fine”, increasing the feeling of security and protection. This issue has been pointed out by Reynolds and Seeger , regarding crisis communication management; by Grotberg [34,37], specifically focused on resilience; and by Brooks et al. , as linked with stress.
- Ideas to combat frustration and boredom, promoting physical activity such as gymnastics, fitness, or dance. This insight has commonalities with the conclusions reached by Frigon . These proposals are especially useful to manage the levels of stress associated with isolation.
- Proposals for creative, playful, humorous, or challenging activities (e.g., uploading to Tik-Tok) to do at home. Strategies for finding new options, activities, and even routines in traumatic and stressing situations have been stressed as a source of resilience by Connor and Davidson , as well as by Goldman and Galea .
- Messages whose core is social union, help, and altruism, according to Adger .
4.1. Limitations and Future Research Directions
4.2. Practical Implications
Conflicts of Interest
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|The Expected Role of Brands through Their Advertising||Percentage of the Spanish Population That Agrees with This Information|
|Advertising should show how companies can be useful in the new daily life||83%|
|Advertising should inform your efforts to confront the situation||81%|
|Advertising should use a reassuring tone||79%|
|Do not take advantage of the coronavirus to promote the brand||75%|
|Providing a positive perspective||70%|
|Communicating brand values||62%|
|N°||Variable||Categories and Values|
|2 MED||Communication media||Generalist free-to-air televisions (TV1, La 2, Antena 3, La Sexta, Telecinco, Cuatro)|
|3 SEC||Duration of the advertisement||Seconds|
|5 BRA||Brand||Product brand name|
|6 SET||Sector of activity||1. Food|
|4. Energy and recycling|
|7. Hygiene and beauty|
|8. Banking and finance|
|9. Insurance and security|
|10. Tourist destination or territory brand|
|11. Media, entertainment, and gaming|
|12. Home appliances|
|13. Construction and materials|
|7 TIP||Type of message||1. Corporate and institutional or image|
|2. Product, service, or sales|
|8 SLO||Advertisement slogan||The slogan or claim is registered|
|9 TXT||Full text of the advertisement||The full text is recorded|
|10 TON||Tone||Very positive|
|11 EMO||Emotional burden||Very emotional|
|Not at all emotional|
|12 OFF||Voice over||Text overprinting|
|Girl or boy|
|13 EST||Stress factors. Factors and coping strategies||1. Rest, relax|
|2. Get bored|
|3. Thinking, reflecting, planning, looking out the window|
|4. Watching movies or gaming|
|5. Listening to music, reading, writing|
|6. Playing music or dancing|
|7. Cooking and baking as entertainment|
|8. Being with family, talking, laughing, playing, or walking|
|9. We will take to the streets, go out with friends, leisure, shopping, or work|
|10. Household tasks and routine|
|11. Teleworking or tele-studying|
|12. Clap your hands, go out to the balcony, to the neighbourhood|
|13. Helping others, being in solidarity, living the community|
|14. Make a video or mobile call to family or friends|
|15. Playing sports at home|
|16. Remembering or imagining adventures, sport, or travel|
|17. Doing challenges at home (e.g., using tik-tok)|
|18. Celebrate birthdays or anniversaries|
|14 RES||Resilience: Sources of Resilience||1. Appealing to the resistance|
|2. Reassuring, overcoming fears and fears, giving hope and encouragement.|
|3. Transmit protection and safety|
|4. Thank the health and essential personnel|
|5. Thanking the company’s staff|
|6. Thanking you, the citizens|
|7. Informing and doing pedagogy regarding COVID-19|
|8. Raise personal, group, or country self-esteem|
|9. Get a positive and transcendental reading. To grow and learn.|
|10. To promote co-operation, help, and altruism|
|11. Encourage interpersonal communication, seek and enhance family support and affection|
|12. Appealing to meet friends, promoting socialization and affection of friends|
|13. Empathizing with the population|
|14. Appeal to the essence and essence of the human being|
|15. Appeal for the protection and care of the elderly and other vulnerable people|
|Stress Factors during Confinement||De-Stressing Narratives of Public Utility from Spanish Companies and Brands during the Confinement Due to COVID-19|
|Duration of quarantine||“It will all be over soon”. “Our scientists are working to find a solution soon”. “Soon it will be back to normal”. “With occupations and distractions, time goes by sooner”.|
|Fear of infection||“At home you are safe”. “Don’t go out if you don’t have to”. “Be very careful”. “Follow the rules and recommendations”.|
|Inadequate and insufficient supplies||“We work to guarantee the supply of essential goods to Spanish society”. “We work day and night so that you don’t lack anything”. “We are at your service.|
|Improvised information||“We keep you informed”. “Use masks, gels and social distance”.|
|Sources of Resilience||Resilient Narratives of Public Utility from Spanish Companies and Brands during the Confinement Due to COVID-19|
|1||Appealing to the resistance||“Resist. Stay. Hold on. It is what it touches. Take charge”|
|2||Reassuring, overcoming fears and fears, giving hope and encouragement.||“Don’t worry”. “You are not alone”. “Normality will soon return”. “There is less left”. “Everything will be fine. “Everything will be like before”. “There will be time to do everything”. “We will go back to doing the life of before”|
|3||Transmit protection and safety||“We are here”. “We work for you”. “Together (we and you) and United”. “You are Safe”|
|4||Thank the health and essential personnel||“Come out to the balcony and applaud our health heroes, policemen and essential professions”|
|5||Thanking the company’s staff||“Thanks to you, our workers”. “Our workers are also heroes and essential”|
|6||Thanking you, the citizens||“Thank you for staying home”. “You are a hero too. “You have our admiration”|
|7||Informing and doing pedagogy regarding COVID-19||“Stay at home”. “Physical distance, hand washing and hydroalcoholic gel”. “Follow the recommendations of the authorities”|
|8||Raise personal, group, or country self-esteem||“You are amazing”. “You are extraordinary”. “We are unique”. “We are a great country”.|
|9||Get a positive and transcendental reading. To grow and learn.||“We realized that we had to stop”. “We were not on the right track”. “There is no evil that does not come from good”. “Something has to change”. “Reflect. Grow up. Think. Change”. “Value more what you have”|
|10||To promote co-operation, help, and altruism||“Helping makes you feel good”. “Help your neighbours, those who are alone and those who need it most”. “Think about the others”. “Think of the other”.|
|11||Encourage interpersonal communication, seek and enhance family support and affection||“Talk to your family”. “Lean on others”. “Create bonds with your children, partner and parents”. “Do not distance yourself emotionally from them: make a video call, remember or imagine a re-encounter”|
|12||Appealing to meet friends, promoting socialization and affection of friends||“Talk to your friends.” “Lean on them”. “Keep the bonds of affection.” “Don’t distance yourself emotionally from them: video calls with friends”|
|13||Empathizing with the population||“We understand you”. “We are with you: we are part of the” “We “. “We know what you are going through”. “We, the companies, take care of it”. “It doesn’t have to be easy for you”. “We row in the same direction”. “We feel identified. “Your problems are our problems”|
|14||Appeal to the essence and essence of the human being||“Life. Health. Care. Protection. Affection”. “The small things”. “The small gestures”. “The simple life”. “The simplicity”. “The small pleasures”. “Human being”. “To be united, to create and to maintain the emotional bonds”|
|15||Appeal for the protection and care of the elderly and other vulnerable people||“Our elderly, people with disabilities and children need you: they are the most vulnerable”|
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Olivares-Delgado, F.; Iglesias-Sánchez, P.P.; Benlloch-Osuna, M.T.; Heras-Pedrosa, C.d.l.; Jambrino-Maldonado, C. Resilience and Anti-Stress during COVID-19 Isolation in Spain: An Analysis through Audiovisual Spots. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 8876. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17238876
Olivares-Delgado F, Iglesias-Sánchez PP, Benlloch-Osuna MT, Heras-Pedrosa Cdl, Jambrino-Maldonado C. Resilience and Anti-Stress during COVID-19 Isolation in Spain: An Analysis through Audiovisual Spots. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(23):8876. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17238876Chicago/Turabian Style
Olivares-Delgado, Fernando, Patricia P. Iglesias-Sánchez, María Teresa Benlloch-Osuna, Carlos de las Heras-Pedrosa, and Carmen Jambrino-Maldonado. 2020. "Resilience and Anti-Stress during COVID-19 Isolation in Spain: An Analysis through Audiovisual Spots" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17, no. 23: 8876. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17238876