2.1. Physical Self-Efficacy, Psychological Well-Being, and Organizational Citizenship Behavior
From social cognitive theory, which assumes that learning occurs in a social context through dynamic and interactive interactions of people, environments, and actions, self-efficacy is the belief of an individual in his or her ability to complete a certain task [15
] successfully. Similarly, physical self-efficacy, which is a form of self-efficacy, refers to an individual’s perceived level of competence related to physical tasks [16
]. Interestingly, physical self-efficacy is also used as an interventional psychological mechanism to improve exercise participation and immersion. According to McAuley and Blissmer [17
], physical self-efficacy consists of perceived physical ability, which refers to the ability to perform physical skills and tasks, and physical self-presentation confidence individual’s belief in demonstrating physical skills to be evaluated by others. Interestingly, perceived physical ability and physical self-presentation confidence increase individuals’ subjective efficacy, such as speed, intensity, and reaction time. Physical self-efficacy affects what activity a person chooses, how much effort the person should make, and how much persistence the person should have in the face of difficulties, which determines the present and future behaviors [18
Well-being is harmonious satisfaction between one’s desires and goals. Psychological well-being refers to a sense of subjective satisfaction, satisfaction with life experiences, one’s role in the world of work, a sense of accomplishment, and a greater sense of belonging [9
]. The subject of well-being has been the center of many scholars’ interests over the past decades. It includes various components and aspects, such as psychological, physical, economic, and social well-being [3
]. Especially, Ryff [19
] introduced six sub-dimensions of psychological well-being, including self-acceptance, positive relationship with others, autonomy, environmental mastery, life purpose, and personal growth. The research found that these subcomponents of psychological well-being were shown consistently across different environments. Additionally, recent studies in the organizational behavior context have recognized psychological well-being as the antecedent of employee job performance and work efficiency [3
Organizational citizenship behavior can be defined as the discretionary behavior of individuals that effectively promotes an organization [1
]. Since the term of organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) was first coined by Organ and his colleagues [21
], scholarly concern in OCB has dramatically increased [22
]. Interestingly, Niehoff and Moorman [23
] subdivided organizational citizenship behavior into five distinct categories: altruism, courtesy, sportsmanship, conscientiousness, and civic virtue. Williams and Anderson [24
] also distinguished organizational citizenship behavior into organizational citizenship behavior-individual (OCB-I), which is given immediate benefits to an individual, and then indirectly to an organization, and organizational citizenship behavior-organization (OCB-O), which benefits the organization as a whole. OCB-I includes altruistic and respectful behavior that benefits individuals in the organization, while OCB-O refers to legitimate behavior that directly helps the organization. Ultimately, OCB-O can be understood as an essential measure that positively impacts maintaining and developing an organization. The present study focused on OCB-O, which is directly related to organizational effectiveness and performance. As such, thisstudy’s primary purpose was to identify the effects of physical self-efficacy on the psychological well-being and organizational citizenship behavior among hotel employees.
] emphasized self-efficacy as a belief in one’s ability to organize and execute the course of action necessary to achieve goals. Self-efficacy is an important predictor of work-related well-being, such as job satisfaction and psychological happiness [3
]. Physical self-efficacy, which consists of perceived physical ability and physical self-presentation confidence, has been reported to reduce negative emotional states such as anxiety and depression and improve self-concept, self-esteem, and cognitive ability [17
]. Given this, Darvishmotevali and Ali [3
] found that hotel employees’ psychological capital, which includes physical self-efficacy, optimism, resilience, and hope, has a buffering role in the relationship between well-being and job performance. As such, they concluded that self-efficacy is positively correlated with self-confidence and respect, positive emotions, well-being, mental and physical health, and adaptation to difficult situations. Additionally, Niu [25
] reported the positive impacts of foodservice employees’ creative self-efficacy on job crafts and job satisfaction. The finding indicates that the more employees have beliefs in their abilities to achieve creative job performance, the more they positively change their relationships with others at work and their perceptions of their jobs and the higher job satisfaction. Based on the findings mentioned above from prior research, the following hypotheses are proposed:
Perceived physical ability has a positive effect on psychological well-being among hotel employees.
Physical self-presentation confidence has a positive effect on psychological well-being among hotel employees.
Physical self-efficacy affects athletic performance and provides the basis for motivation, well-being, and individual performance. It is closely associated with the thinking patterns and emotional reactions of an individual [16
]. Early self-efficacy levels affect the willingness and ability to perform tasks independently within a group environment [26
]. Moreover, Chen and Kao [27
] reported that physical self-efficacy positively affected Taiwanese police officers’ organizational citizenship behavior. Spector and Fox [8
] also argued that when the members of an organization feel full of energy, both psychologically and physically, they can achieve high levels of task performance and control negative emotions to reduce counterproductive work behavior and promote organizational citizenship behavior. Thus, we suggest the following hypotheses:
Perceived physical ability has a positive effect on organizational citizenship behavior among hotel employees.
Physical self-presentation confidence has a positive effect on organizational citizenship behavior among hotel employees.
Psychological well-being is closely related to social relationships, emotional feelings, or cognitive judgments about the surrounding environment. Since service ”workers’ positive emotions, such as pleasant mood and satisfaction, can promote social identity, community consciousness, and work effectiveness, their emotions are closely linked to organizational performance [28
]. Paul et al. [7
] found that employees’ subjective well-being was a significant predictor of organizational citizenship behavior in the Indian manufacturing industry. Moreover, Van Katwyk et al. [29
] reported that university employees who experienced well-being in the organization took pro-social and organizational citizenship behaviors and showed high voluntary level participation. Thus, we propose the following hypothesis:
Psychological well-being has a positive effect on organizational citizenship behavior among hotel employees.