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Open AccessArticle

Updating the Mediterranean Diet Pyramid towards Sustainability: Focus on Environmental Concerns

1
Research Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences, University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, and Complejo Hospitalario Universitario Insular—Materno Infantil (CHUIMI), Canarian Health Service, 35016 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain
2
International Foundation of Mediterranean Diet, Nutrition Research Foundation, Barcelona Science Park, 08028 Barcelona, Spain
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CIBEROBN, Biomedical Research Networking Center for Physiopathology of Obesity and Nutrition, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, 28029 Madrid, Spain
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Department of Clinical Medicine and Community Health (DISCCO), Università degli Studi di Milano, 20122 Milan, Italy
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Forum on Mediterranean Food Cultures, 00148 Rome, Italy
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Braun School of Public Health, Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School, 91120 Jerusalem, Israel
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Human Nutrition, Aix Marseille University, INSERM, INRA, C2VN, 13005 Marseille, France
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FoodLab Research Group (2017SGR 83), Faculty of Health Sciences, Universitat Oberta de Catalunya (Open University of Catalonia, UOC), 08018 Barcelona, Spain
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Food and Nutrition Area, Barcelona Official College of Pharmacists, 08009 Barcelona, Spain
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Department of Experimental Medicine, Sapienza University, 00136 Rome, Italy
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Training and Research Unit on Nutrition & Food Sciences, Biotechnology, Biochemistry & Nutrition Laboratory, Chouaib Doukkali University, El Jadida 24000, Morocco
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Department of Health, Physical Education and Consumer Studies, Faculty of Education, University of Malta, MSD2080 Msida, Malta
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International Center for Advanced Mediterranean Agronomic Studies (CIHEAM), 70010 Valenzano (Bari), Italy
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Department of Food Sciences and Physiology, University of Navarra, 31008 Pamplona, Spain
15
Hellenic Health Foundation, 11527 Athens, Greece
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(23), 8758; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17238758
Received: 9 October 2020 / Revised: 16 November 2020 / Accepted: 23 November 2020 / Published: 25 November 2020
Background: Nowadays the food production, supply and consumption chain represent a major cause of ecological pressure on the natural environment, and diet links worldwide human health with environmental sustainability. Food policy, dietary guidelines and food security strategies need to evolve from the limited historical approach, mainly focused on nutrients and health, to a new one considering the environmental, socio-economic and cultural impact—and thus the sustainability—of diets. Objective: To present an updated version of the Mediterranean Diet Pyramid (MDP) to reflect multiple environmental concerns. Methods: We performed a revision and restructuring of the MDP to incorporate more recent findings on the sustainability and environmental impact of the Mediterranean Diet pattern, as well as its associations with nutrition and health. For each level of the MDP we provided a third dimension featuring the corresponding environmental aspects related to it. Conclusions: The new environmental dimension of the MDP enhances food intake recommendations addressing both health and environmental issues. Compared to the previous 2011 version, it emphasizes more strongly a lower consumption of red meat and bovine dairy products, and a higher consumption of legumes and locally grown eco-friendly plant foods as much as possible. View Full-Text
Keywords: Mediterranean diet; Mediterranean diet pyramid; sustainable diets; sustainability; environmental concerns; nutrition; food-based dietary guidelines Mediterranean diet; Mediterranean diet pyramid; sustainable diets; sustainability; environmental concerns; nutrition; food-based dietary guidelines
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MDPI and ACS Style

Serra-Majem, L.; Tomaino, L.; Dernini, S.; Berry, E.M.; Lairon, D.; Ngo de la Cruz, J.; Bach-Faig, A.; Donini, L.M.; Medina, F.-X.; Belahsen, R.; Piscopo, S.; Capone, R.; Aranceta-Bartrina, J.; La Vecchia, C.; Trichopoulou, A. Updating the Mediterranean Diet Pyramid towards Sustainability: Focus on Environmental Concerns. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 8758.

AMA Style

Serra-Majem L, Tomaino L, Dernini S, Berry EM, Lairon D, Ngo de la Cruz J, Bach-Faig A, Donini LM, Medina F-X, Belahsen R, Piscopo S, Capone R, Aranceta-Bartrina J, La Vecchia C, Trichopoulou A. Updating the Mediterranean Diet Pyramid towards Sustainability: Focus on Environmental Concerns. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(23):8758.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Serra-Majem, Lluís; Tomaino, Laura; Dernini, Sandro; Berry, Elliot M.; Lairon, Denis; Ngo de la Cruz, Joy; Bach-Faig, Anna; Donini, Lorenzo M.; Medina, Francesc-Xavier; Belahsen, Rekia; Piscopo, Suzanne; Capone, Roberto; Aranceta-Bartrina, Javier; La Vecchia, Carlo; Trichopoulou, Antonia. 2020. "Updating the Mediterranean Diet Pyramid towards Sustainability: Focus on Environmental Concerns" Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 17, no. 23: 8758.

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